Tag Archives: hydraulic actuators

LEO Progress: J-2X to Test Stand A1

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“Nothing behind me, everything ahead of me, as is ever so on the road.”
– Jack Kerouac, On the Road

Recently, J-2X development engine 10002 was on the road.  If you remember, E10002 went through a six-test series on test stand A2 that began in February and finished up in April.  The next planned phase of E10002 testing is on test stand A1.  In between these series, the engine was back in the assembly area of NASA Stennis Space Center Building 9101.


This respite between test series allowed for a complete series of inspections of the engine hardware.  This is vital piece of the learning process for engine development.  The basic truth is that a rocket engine is just darn tough on itself when it fires.  The reason that we test and test and test is to make sure that our design can stand up to the recurring brutal conditions.  The chance to look for the effects of that testing through detailed inspections away from the test stand is an opportunity to collect a great deal of useful information.

Also, even before the engine arrived at the assembly area, the stub nozzle extension was removed.  This was done while the engine was still installed in the test stand.  Remember, the testing on test stand A2 was performed with a passive diffuser and so we were able to use an instrumented stub nozzle extension to examine the nozzle thermal environments.  On A1, there will be no diffuser.  We’ll be firing straight into the ambient Mississippi afternoon and so we’ll not have any nozzle extension attached.  The other change made to the engine — this one made while in the assembly area — was that we swapped out the flexible inlet ducts so that we can use our specially instrumented ducts for the gimbal testing on A1.  These ducts will provide a great deal of unique data when we gimbal the engine and force the inlet ducts to twist and bend and they are designed to do.

Below is my favorite picture from the recent assembly activities for E10002 back in Building 9101.


“FOE” stands for “foreign object elimination.”  I love this picture because it is a demonstration of how dedicated and meticulous are our assembly techs and how much basic integrity they bring to their job every single day.  In the rocket engine business we tend to be fanatics about foreign objects (i.e., random debris of unknown origin) hanging around.  The reason for this is that if you spend enough time in the business, you will eventually have a story of what happens when trash gets into the engine.  The rocket in question might be an amazingly powerful beast pumping out five hundred pounds of propellant per second generating 300,000 pounds of thrust, but all it takes is one bit of junk in the wrong place to destroy the whole thing in fractions of a second.

In the picture above is a small nut that was found in the periphery of the assembly area.  Shoot, if this was my garage you’d be lucky to find a clean patch not strewn with various bits of stuff like nuts, bolts, wads of duct tape, old hunks of sandpaper, that lost pair of pliers, a “Huey Lewis and the News” cassette, or, well, who knows what.  But the rocket engine assembly area is NOT my garage (thank goodness).  When something is found like a stray nut in the picture above, that sets off an investigation.  Where did it come from?  How did it get loose?  What procedure allowed this nut to escape control?  This is serious stuff.  Yet, just think about how easy it would have been for a tech to see that stray nut, pick it up, and stick it in his pocket.  They could have avoided the whole minor investigation thing entirely.  But that’s not what they did and that is not what they do.  Because they know that if they do not show the necessary integrity and methodical approach to continue to learn and perfect our procedures, then the next stray nut could be lodged where it could do terrible damage.

Here are the techs moving E10002 out of its assembly bay and unpacking it for transport.


And a couple more pictures of the process in Building 9101.


Here’s the engine ready for the road, then being lifted up the side of the test stand, and then sitting in the porch area while sitting on the engine vertical installer.  I really enjoy the pictures of the engine trucking about sunny NASA SSC.  That picture was the inspiration for including the Jack Kerouac quote at the beginning of the article.  It’s bright and shiny and full of so much thrill and promise.


All of this should look reasonably familiar.  It is the process that we follow, more or less, whenever we take an engine out to the stand.  Getting the engine into and out of A1 is a bit easier since you don’t have to deal with moving the diffuser out of the way, but they’re really quite similar.  The slightly different flavor that we’ve got for this testing is the addition of the thrust vector control system.  In the picture below you can see where these hang.  The engine mounts up with the gimbal bearing to the stout, yellow thrust take-out structure.


The two hydraulic actuators are also attached to the thrust take-out structure but slightly outboard and at 90 degrees apart.  These actuators are what will swing the engine around as if we were steering a vehicle.  Here, below, is another, closer view of the thrust take-out structure and the actuators.


In the picture below, E10002 is mounted up to the thrust take-out structure.  The gimbal bearing is the shiny object towards which the arrow is pointing.  If you look over to the right side of the picture, you can see one of the “scissors ducts,” i.e., the flexible propellant inlet ducts.


The next picture shows one of the hydraulic actuators hooked up to the engine.  As you can see the tolerances are awfully tight.  That’s an important vehicle integration consideration.  If this was a vehicle stage rather than a test stand to which we were attaching the engine, the thrust structure and the actuators would be the responsibility of the stage manufacturer.  Making sure that the stage and the engine can work together in such close quarters takes a great deal of vigilance between the two teams.


So, you’re probably asking yourself, to what do these actuators connect on the engine?  That’s a very good question.  It certainly isn’t obvious from the assembly pictures.  The actuators connect to the forward manifold of the main combustion chamber (MCC).  Below is a computer model of the MCC with the two actuator attachment points shown.


The MCC is really the heart of the whole engine, the sturdy framework stuck right in the middle, so it makes sense that when you want to push the engine around, this is what you’d have to push.  This final picture below of the engine completely mounted into the stand.  Again, it’s amazing to think about that whole thing being able to move about and not having one component run into another component or the actuators or the stand.  It is quite the integration miracle.


Testing for E10002 on test stand A1 will commence in June.  So, if all goes well, for the next J-2X update, I’ll be able to link in a video of the engine firing and twisting about.

BTW, NASA is in the process of swapping software used for posting blog articles and comments and such.  As part of this process, they have to shut down the capability to accept input comments for a short time, specifically the first two weeks of July 2013.  Sorry about that.  But after that, it ought to be up and running as normal.

Welcome to the J-2X Doghouse: Twist and Shout…and Steering

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Put a little kid into the driver’s seat of a (safely parked) car and what’s the first thing that they do?  They grab the steering wheel and twist it back and forth.  Twisting the steering wheel back and forth is just about the most intuitive, intrinsic — practically instinctive — sense of “driving” that I can imagine.  Even the handlebars of a bicycle or a motorcycle fit into the same idea.  Can you think of driving a car or a boat or, well, anything, without a steering wheel (of some sort)?  It’s tough, isn’t it?  

Okay, now think of a launch vehicle blasting off the pad and upwards heading towards the sky.  Other than for some extreme, emergency conditions, there is not anything that stands in for the steering wheel on a launch vehicle during ascent.  The process of steering the vehicle requires such precision and responsiveness that it has to be automated.  Sorry Buck Rogers, the computer is flying the vehicle.  But, even without a steering wheel, per se, how does steering happen?

With a car, you point the front wheels and, thanks to friction between the tires and the road, you get pulled (or pushed for the sports car purist and NASCAR fans) in that direction.

With a boat, you use a rudder so that the water pushing against it points the boat in the direction you want to head.

With an airplane, you have to use a combination of aerodynamic surfaces since you’re now dealing with steering in three dimensions, not just two as with an automobile or a boat.  But the idea is basically the same: the air through which you’re moving pushes against the aerodynamic surfaces and points the plane in the direction you need to go.

What do you do with a launch vehicle?  Not long after the first couple minutes of flight, you’re so high in the atmosphere that there’s not enough air to effectively use aerodynamic surfaces.  In other words, you don’t have a road and a rudder won’t work.  So what do you use when you don’t have anything against which to push?  That’s right: a rocket!

You could, if you chose to do it this way, use dedicated steering rockets.  We do use these when we’re in space and we typically call them “retrorockets” or “reaction and control” rockets.  But during the ascent, you already have a big rocket engine pushing you along so you might as well use that if you can, but to do so, you need to twist it around…

[Yes, I can’t help myself.  I had to make a musical reference.  “Twist and Shout” (written by Phil Medley and Bert Russell) was originally recorded by the Top Notes, then the Isley Brothers, and, eventually by the Beatles (as so memorably replayed many years later in “Ferris Bueller’s Day Off”).  Lots and lots of people have done versions of this song, but probably the most bizarre was Mae West — yes, THAT Mae West — when she was 72 years old.  Who knew?]

What do I mean with regards to twisting a rocket engine?  Here’s a video of what we call “gimballing” an engine on the test stand, in this case a Space Shuttle Main Engine (video provided by my friend and coworker Rick Ballard from his Liquid Rocket Engine class materials):

So, for a launch vehicle during ascent, you accomplish steering by pointing the thing pushing you, i.e., your main propulsion rocket engine.  That’s a cool video, huh?  But how do we accomplish that?  The movement itself is provided by hydraulic actuators.  These are push/pull devices driven by fluid pressure.  The brakes on your car are hydraulically actuated, for example.  Another example of hydraulic actuators are those lifts at the garage they use to pick your car up off the ground.  In other words, they can be very powerful devices.  You can do a quick web search on “hydraulic actuators” and find all kinds of pictures and articles and even sales pitches from manufacturers.  

On the rocket engine we put just two connection points for the actuators at ninety degrees apart from each other.  This gives us what you can think of as full, two-dimensional coverage.  If you remember back to math class, everything on a flat page can be located via X-Y coordinates.  Thus, one actuator provides the X-direction and the other provides the Y-direction.  And, with that, we can point the engine to any location within a given, limited range of movement.

At the top of the engine, in order to allow the movement, we put in what amounts to a universal joint.  It’s called the “gimbal bearing” and it’s like the ball-and-socket joint in your shoulder except that this joint has to carry the full thrust load of the engine while maintaining its flexibility.  Because of the conditions seen by the engine, you can’t use any typical lubrication like grease or anything like that.  Instead, we use a Teflon-impregnated fabric layer.

I like the picture above showing several guys working with typical engine gimbal bearings.  In the picture you can get a sense of how beefy these things are when assembled and you can clearly see the “ball” part of the ball-and-socket joint. 

Have we gotten to the really, really neato part yet?  Yes, we have (in my humble opinion).  Here it comes.  How is it that we can move around the engine?  I mean, besides the big ball-and-socket joint at the top that is meant to move around, all the rest of it is assembled out of all kinds of stiff metal pieces, right?  It’s not like you can stick cryogenic propellants through a flexible rubber garden hose.  So how do we get the compliance in the rest of the engine components that allow for the movement the actuators and gimbal bearing are providing?  With no compliance, the actuators would push and pull, and, assuming that they were powerful enough to do damage (and they usually are), the engine ducts would buckle and crush and, frankly, you’d have a crumpled mess.  What we do then is build the compliance into the engine with specific parts to provide this functionality.  This is accomplished in different ways on different engines.  Below is how this compliance is accomplished for J-2X for the main propellant lines:

That pretty piece of hardware is a propellant inlet duct.  In fact, that picture is of the first new propellant inlet duct fabricated for a J-2, J-2S, or J-2X engine in forty years.  This new duct is like the heritage design but better, safer, more robust.  It is an extremely difficult piece of hardware to make in that it involves some very highly specialized welding techniques.  So a big shout-out goes to Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and the guys on the shop floor.  Way to go guys!

How does it work?  The sections with the convolutions are called bellows.  Above is a cut-away of a metal bellows made by the same company as our propellant inlet duct, Gardner Bellows Corporation, but not our same design.  The bellows take advantage of the way that metal can act like a spring.  If it doesn’t get bent too far, the metal will bounce back undamaged.  These dozens of convolutions in the bellows allow for enough movement that the whole thing acts like a stiff spring.  The hinged structures on the sides hold the bellows together and constrain the springy parts and make sure that they stay in their groove (so to speak). 

The next natural question about this duct is this:  Why does it appear to be in two pieces, an upper bellows and a lower bellows?  The answer is that it isn’t in two pieces; it’s in three pieces.  In between the upper bellows and the lower bellows is a third set of bellows that you can’t see very well and that’s because they’re really flat.  This is the torsional bellows and it provides for a slight twist between the upper and lower sections.  When you’re gimballing the engine, not only do you need these ducts to bend, you also need a bit of twist…

I think that the torsional bellows is even cooler than the bending bellows.  Have you ever tried to twist a long piece of wood, like maybe an eight-foot-long, one-by-two strip?  The longer the piece, the easier it is to get a few degrees of twist.  A short piece of wood, even with the same cross-sectional dimensions, won’t allow for as much twist.  There is an “allowable twist per unit length” thing going on: longer = more twist, shorter=less twist.  Okay, now assume that the same is true for a metal pipe.  If you have a very long metal pipe and you apply a twisting force to it (torsion), you can get some movement, more movement than you’d get with a short pipe.  But there’s no space on a rocket engine for a very long pipe, so how do you allow for some twist?  What we do is collapse the long pipe into shortness by making it into a very tight accordion-like package.  In other words, we add convolutions kind of like the bending bellows, but make them very tight, very flat.  So, all of the metal “length” is still there, just in a really compact, squashed package.  It kind of feels like cheating, somehow, but it works.  See?!  That’s just neato!

In addition to the big ducts, the propellant ducts, you also have to take into account any other connections between the engine and the vehicle stage.  If you think back to the article about vehicle integration, you’ll remember that we’ve got pneumatic lines and propellant pressurization lines and helium spin start lines connecting the engine to the stage.  In all of these lines we have to make provisions for compliance to engine gimballing motion.  As you can imagine, this makes the design for these pieces not simple.  But nobody ever said that rocket engines were supposed to be simple.  Also note that different rocket engines use different approaches for achieving the compliance necessary to accommodate gimballing, but they almost always use “springy” metal bellows in some sort of configuration.

The first J-2X engine that will see gimballing in the test stand will be development engine E10002.  That should be happening later this year.  Stay tuned.  I’ll certainly be posting some gee-whiz video after that happens.  Go J-2X!