May’s Full Moon Comes with Supermoon Eclipse

As we approach month’s end, there is not one, not two, but three celestial events happening with our Moon!

The Moon will be located on Earth’s opposite side from the Sun and fully illuminated May 26, 2021, at 6:13 a.m. CDT. This Full Moon was known by early Native American tribes as the Flower Moon because this was the time of year when spring flowers appeared in abundance.

Compared to other Full Moons in 2021, the Flower Moon will have the nearest approach to Earth, making it appear as the closet and largest Full Moon of the year. This is what is commonly referred to as a “supermoon”. Yet, it’s not just bringing brightness and size. May’s supermoon is also bringing a “super power” to change its color, and the color is red!

A telescopic visualization of the 2021 total lunar eclipse.
A telescopic visualization of the 2021 total lunar eclipse.
Credits: NASA’s Scientifc Visualization Studio

Mars is most commonly known as the Red Planet. But have you ever witnessed our own planet’s Moon turn red? If you haven’t, you’ll get your chance with this year’s only total lunar eclipse also happening May 26! It’s been nearly two and a half years since the last one.

A total lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes completely through the Earth’s dark shadow, or umbra. During this type of eclipse, the Moon will gradually get darker, taking on a rusty or blood-red color. The color is so striking that lunar eclipses are sometimes called Blood Moons.

The total eclipse phase will be visible near moonset in the western United States and Canada, all of Mexico, most of Central America and Ecuador, western Peru, and southern Chile and Argentina. The eclipse can be seen in its entirety in eastern Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, including Hawaii. Unlike a solar eclipse, you won’t need special glasses to view this lunar eclipse, just go outside and keep your head to the sky!

“Folks in Hawaii and the Aleutian Islands will get to see the entirety of this eclipse – it will be quite a show for them,” said Bill Cooke, Lead, NASA Meteoroid Environments Office.

The eclipse is set to begin May 26 at 1:46 a.m. PDT, with the Moon entering the darkest part of the Earth’s shadow at 2:45 a.m. Part of it will remain in the umbra until 5:53 a.m. To catch totality – the period when all of the Moon’s surface is blanketed by the Earth’s dark shadow – look up between 4:11 and 4:26 a.m.

We haven’t had a total lunar eclipse occur with a supermoon in almost six years, and the next total lunar eclipse won’t happen over North America until May 2022.

Enjoy this spectacle of the sky!

by Lance D. Davis

Ring-Sheared Drop Team Prepares for Zero-G Flight 

A team of researchers from NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center is preparing to take flight and evade gravity in pursuit of science.

Team members are traveling to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, to test an experiment known as the Ring-Sheared Drop. Developed by Marshall and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute of Troy, New York, the experiment will study the formation of potentially destructive amyloid fibrils, or protein clusters, like those found in the brain tissue of patients battling neurodegenerative diseases — such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

The Ring-Sheared Drop team boards G Force One
The Ring-Sheared Drop team boards G Force One in Fort Lauderdale, Florida with their equipment. (NASA)

In Earth-based experiments, researchers determined that amyloid fibrils may be created by shear flow, or the difference in flow velocity between adjacent layers of a liquid. In the case of ground experiments, that formation is affected by the presence of container walls and by convection, or the circular motion that occurs when warmer liquid rises while cooler liquid descends.

The goal now is to conduct experiments in microgravity — in a containerless reactor — where the liquid specimens form spherical drops, containing themselves via surface tension. Researchers will “pin” a droplet of liquid between two rings and cultivate amyloid fibrils for study.

The experiment was initially launched to the International Space Station in 2019. However, when the experiment failed, efforts began on Earth to improve the testing apparatus for future testing. Now, before the equipment is ready for another trip to the space station, the team will “practice” pinning liquid drops on a parabolic flight.

The research team installs their experimental hardware on G Force One
The research team installs their experimental hardware on G Force One in preparation for April 28, 29 parabolic flights. (NASA)

How exactly is weightlessness reached? A modified Boeing 727 — named G-Force One — achieves periods of variable gravity through a series of maneuvers called parabolas. The team will be able to interact with their hardware in zero gravity for 22 seconds at a time.

NASA’s Flight Opportunities program, within the Space Technology Mission Directorate, makes these experiment flights possible by facilitating rapid demonstration of promising technologies for space exploration, discovery, and results benefit life on Earth.

The program matures capabilities needed for NASA missions and commercial applications while strategically investing in the growth of the U.S. commercial spaceflight industry.

The Ring-Sheared Drop team is scheduled to fly with their hardware April 28 and 29 on a parabolic flight managed by Zero G of Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

Continue to follow NASA’s Watch the Skies blog in the coming weeks for the latest updates on the team, the parabolic flight, and the results of the Ring-Sheared Drop experiment.

Earth Day: NASA Celebration, Lyrids to Peak

Earth Day – also known as the birth of the modern environmental movement – is Thursday, April 22, 2021. It began in 1970, giving a voice to an emerging public consciousness about the state of our planet. The celebration is widely recognized as the largest secular observance in the world, with more than a billion people participating annually in support of preserving the health and beauty of our planet.

In observance of Earth Day, NASA will host a virtual event April 21-24 to show how we are #ConnectedByEarth with a week of online events, stories, and resources. The event platform will feature live presentations by NASA scientists, as well as interactive chats with Earth science experts. Visitors can explore the connections between Earth’s atmosphere, water cycle, forests, fields, cities, ice caps, and climate through videos and interactive science content, a kid-friendly fun zone, a scavenger hunt, hundreds of downloadable resources, and more. Some content also will be available in Spanish.

Earth Day
This Earth Day, NASA highlights science and technology that is helping us all live more sustainably on our home planet and adapt to natural and human-caused changes. Credits: NASA

On Earth Day at 11 a.m. EDT, NASA will host a special live conversation with Grammy-nominated singer-songwriter Shawn Mendes and five people living and working in space: NASA astronauts Mike Hopkins, Victor Glover, Dr. Shannon Walker, and Mark Vande Hei; and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Soichi Noguchi. The event will air live on NASA Television, the NASA app, and the agency’s website. Learn more about NASA’s Earth Day plans and free online registration.

After several months of a meteor drought in 2021, we also have the annual Lyrid meteor shower coming up on Earth Day. The Lyrids will peak in the predawn hours of Earth Day (April 22). If you miss the peak, the wee hours of the following morning (April 23) offer another chance to see this shower, though the number of meteors will be down about 30% from the night of the 21st/22nd.

Lyrid and not-Lyrid meteors over New Mexico
Composite image of Lyrid and not-Lyrid meteors over New Mexico from April, 2012. Credits: NASA/ MSFC/ Danielle Moser

Observers in the Northern Hemisphere will see the most Lyrids, with the best time to watch between midnight and dawn. Although you’ll see a fairly bright Moon in the evening sky, it will set before the shower peaks near dawn. Peak rates for the Lyrids are around 10-20 meteors per hour. The meteors will appear to radiate from the constellation Lyra, but they can appear anywhere in the sky, which is why it is important to lie on your back and take in as much sky as possible.

The Lyrids is among the oldest of known meteor showers, with records going back for 2,700 years or more. It is produced by dust particles left behind by Comet C/1861 G1 Thatcher, which was discovered in 1861. The shower runs annually from April 16-25.

For more on meteor showers, visit the NASA Meteor Watch Facebook page.

Happy Earth Day and meteor watching!

by Lance D. Davis

March Equinox Brings 2 Seasons: Spring, Autumn

The March equinox – also called the vernal equinox – is the beginning of the spring season in the Northern Hemisphere and autumn season in the Southern Hemisphere. It arrives on March 20, 2021, at 09:37 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) or 4:37 a.m. CDT (Central Daylight Time).

illustration of the March (spring) and September (fall or autumn) equinoxes
An illustration of the March (spring) and September (fall or autumn) equinoxes. During the equinoxes, both hemispheres receive equal amounts of daylight. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

During this equinox, the Sun will shine directly on the equator with nearly equal amounts of day and night, about 12 hours. Throughout the world, the Northern and Southern hemispheres will get equal amounts of daylight.

Click to view larger. Credit: NASA/Space Place

The equinoxes and solstices are caused by Earth’s tilt on its axis and ceaseless motion in orbit. Think of an equinox as happening on the imaginary dome of our sky, or as an event that happens in Earth’s orbit around the Sun.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the March equinox will bring us earlier sunrises, later sunsets, softer winds, and budding plants. With the opposite season, south of the equator, there will be later sunrises, earlier sunsets, chillier winds, and dry, falling leaves.

If you’re in the Northern Hemisphere, start watching the Sun as it sets just a bit farther north on the horizon each evening until the summer solstice. Also, enjoy the warmer weather and extended daylight!

Jupiter-Saturn Great Conjunction: Watch Best View Since Middle Ages!

by Lance D. Davis


Stargazers get ready for a nice treat as we are about to witness a super-rare planetary alignment not seen for almost 800 years!

Our solar system’s two biggest worlds – the mighty Jupiter followed by the glorious ringed Saturn – will appear in the sky next to each other at their closest since 1623 and closest visible from Earth since the Middle Ages in 1226. This will happen on Dec. 21, 2020, during an event called a “great conjunction.”

Astronomers use the word conjunction to describe close approaches of planets and other objects on our sky’s dome. They use great conjunction specifically for Jupiter and Saturn because of the planets’ top-ranking sizes.

view of the 2020 great conjunction through the naked eye just after sunset
A graphic made from a simulation program, showing a view of the 2020 great conjunction through the naked eye just after sunset at approximately 5:15 p.m. (EST) on Dec. 21.
Credit: NASA

Great conjunctions between Jupiter and Saturn happen every 20 years, making the planets appear to be close to one another. This closeness occurs because Jupiter orbits the Sun every 12 years, while Saturn’s orbit takes 30 years, causing Jupiter to catch up to Saturn every couple of decades as viewed from Earth.

The last conjuction between these planets took place on May 28, 2000. This year’s conjunction occurs on Dec. 21, which coincidentally is also the date of the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere. The 2020 conjunction is unique because of how close Jupiter and Saturn will appear. In most conjunctions, Jupiter and Saturn pass within a degree of each other. This year, they will pass 10 times closer to each other – the closest in nearly 400 years.

view of the 2020 great conjunction through a telescope
A graphic made from a simulation program, showing the view of the 2020 great conjunction
through a telescope at approximately 5:15 p.m. (EST) on Dec. 21. Credit: NASA

Currently, you can watch Jupiter and Saturn get closer in Earth’s sky each evening until their grand finale on Dec. 21. Just look for them shortly after sunset, shining brightly and low in the southwestern sky. Also, tune in to NASA Science Live or NASA Facebook on Dec. 17 at 3:00 p.m. EST (2:00 p.m. CST) and learn how to see Jupiter and Saturn’s great conjunction.

During the great conjunction, the giant planets will appear just a tenth of a degree apart – that’s about the thickness of a dime held at arm’s length! This means the two planets and their moons will be visible in the same field of view through a small telescope. Truly, this is a once-in-a-lifetime event!

Some astronomers suggest the pair will look like an elongated star and others say the two planets will form a double planet. To know for sure, we’ll just have to look and see. Either way, take advantage of this opportunity because Jupiter and Saturn won’t appear this close in the sky until 2080!

Additional Information & Resources:

Learn how to photograph the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction.
Read about mission visits to Jupiter and Saturn.
Find an astronomy club or event near you!

The Geminids: Best Meteor Shower of the Year!

by Lance D. Davis

The Geminids are widely recognized as the best annual meteor shower a stargazer can see, occurring between Dec. 4 to Dec. 17. We will broadcast a live stream of the shower’s peak Dec. 14-15 (changed dates from 13-14 due to weather) from a meteor camera at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, (if our weather cooperates!) from 8 p.m. to 4 a.m. CST on the NASA Meteor Watch Facebook page.

The parent of the Geminids is 3200 Phaethon, which is arguably considered to be either an asteroid or an extinct comet. When the Earth passes through trails of dust, or meteoroids, left by 3200 Phaethon, that dust burns up in Earth’s atmosphere, creating the Geminid meteor shower.

The Geminid rate will be even better this year, as the shower’s peak overlaps with a nearly new moon, so there will be darker skies and no moonlight to wash out the fainter meteors. That peak will happen on the night of Dec. 13 into the morning of Dec. 14, with some meteor activity visible in the days before and after. Viewing is good all night for the Northern Hemisphere, with activity peaking around 2:00 a.m. local time, and after midnight for viewers in the Southern Hemisphere.

Why are they called the Geminids?

All meteors associated with a shower have similar orbits, and they all appear to come from the same place in the sky, which is called the radiant. The Geminids appear to radiate from a point in the constellation Gemini, hence the name “Geminids.”

How fast are Geminids?

Geminids travel 78,000 mph (35 km/s). This is over 1000 times faster than a cheetah, about 250 times faster than the swiftest car in the world, and over 40 times faster than a speeding bullet!

2019’s meteor camera data for the Geminids.
An info graphic based on 2019’s meteor camera data for the Geminids. Credit: NASA

How to observe the Geminids?

If it’s not cloudy, get away from bright lights, lie on your back, and look up. Remember to let your eyes get adjusted to the dark – you’ll see more meteors that way. Keep in mind, this adjustment can take approximately 30 minutes. Don’t look at your cell phone screen, as it will ruin your night vision!

Meteors can generally be seen all over the sky. Avoid watching the radiant because meteors close to it have very short trails and are easily missed. When you see a meteor, try to trace it backwards. If you end up in the constellation Gemini, there’s a good chance you’ve seen a Geminid.

When is the best time to observe Geminids?

The best night to see the shower is Dec. 13/14. The shower will peak around 01:00 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). Sky watchers in the Northern Hemisphere can see Geminids starting around 7:30 – 8:00 p.m. local time on Dec. 13, with rate of meteors increasing as 2 a.m. approaches. In the Southern hemisphere, good rates will be seen between midnight and dawn local time on Dec. 14. Geminid watchers who observe from midnight to 4 a.m. should catch the most meteors.

How many Geminids can observers expect to see Dec. 13/14?

Realistically, the predicated rate for observers in the northern hemisphere is closer to 60 meteors per hour. This means you can expect to see an average of one Geminid per minute in dark skies at the shower peak. Observers in the southern hemisphere will see fewer Geminids than their northern hemisphere counterparts – perhaps 25% of rates in the northern hemisphere, depending on their latitude.

Where will NASA stream the Geminids meteor shower?

We will broadcast a live stream of the shower’s peak Dec. 13-14 from a meteor camera at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, (if our weather cooperates!) from 8 p.m. to 4 a.m. CST on the NASA Meteor Watch Facebook page.

Meteor videos recorded by the All Sky Fireball Network are also available each morning to identify Geminids in these videos – just look for events labeled “GEM.”

Happy viewing stargazers!

Total Solar Eclipse to Cast Shadow on South America

by Lauren Lambert

What is a Solar Eclipse?

A solar eclipse is a natural phenomenon that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth. This event happens when the Moon completely blocks the Sun and the Moon’s shadow falls onto a portion of the Earth’s surface.

There are three types of solar eclipses: total, partial and annular. During a total solar eclipse, observers can witness daytime twilight because the disk of the Moon blocks 100% of the Sun. During a partial solar eclipse, the Moon is not entirely covering the Sun and you will likely not notice any difference in light intensity. You may only notice a subtle difference if the partial eclipse is close to total and you go outside at maximum eclipse.  Lastly, an annular eclipse can be observed when the Moon is at apogee, or the farthest from Earth within its elliptical orbit. This causes a ring of light, or annulus, to be visible around the Moon, which is sometimes referred to as the “ring of fire.”

total solar eclipse image
During the total solar eclipse, the Sun’s visible-light corona (meaning crown), only visible at maximum eclipse from within the path of totality, is seen here as a crown of white light extending from around the edge of the eclipsing Moon. The red loops of material also seen around the edge, are called prominences, in which magnetic fields enclose hot solar material. Credit: NASA/Armstrong’s Gulfstream III.

Total eclipses are of particular interest to solar scientists, because with the Moon blocking the bright light of the Sun, you can see the Sun’s atmosphere from the ground.  Solar scientists at Marshall Space Flight Center, and around NASA, make use of telescopes called coronagraphs that block the Sun so they can see the dim atmosphere, the corona, around it. But — given how perfectly the Moon lines up with the Sun — you can see the atmosphere closer to the surface of the Sun than we even can with our telescopes in space.

The shadow of the Moon on a planet during an eclipse can be described using three terms: umbra, antumbra and penumbra. The umbra is the shadow that is cast when the Moon completely covers the Sun and is where the path of totality falls. If the Moon is further away from the Earth, it is unable to block the Sun entirely. The Sun appears as a ring of light around the Moon. In this case, the shadow is known as the antumbra, or path of annularity, and occurs during an annular eclipse. Similarly, a partial solar eclipse can be observed when only a portion of the Moon blocks the Sun and creates a shadow referred to as the penumbra. The penumbra also occurs surrounding the umbra during a total eclipse, effectively covering those regions on the planet that only have a view of a partial eclipse.

Crescents of light from solar eclipse
Crescents of light are projected onto the ground during the partial phases of a solar eclipse due to light from the Sun passing through gaps between the leaves of trees, a pinhole effect. This is a safe and indirect way to view a solar eclipse. Credit: NASA/Johnson Space Center

Solar eclipses happen at least twice per calendar year, with total solar eclipses occurring about once every year and a half. But the possibility of seeing them is rare if you’re not in the right place at the right time. Additionally, since Earth is made up of mostly water, the path of totality, or the area receiving total blockage of the Sun, may not necessarily fall on land.

The year of 2020 sees two solar eclipses. The first occurred on June 21 and was an annular solar eclipse, visible from the continents of Africa and Asia. The second will be a total solar eclipse, occurring on Dec. 14, visible from South America. The path of totality crosses over Chile and Argentina, but some of their areas outside of the path of totality will experience a partial solar eclipse. The total eclipse will also be visible in Antarctica, South Africa, as well as the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. Observers will be able to witness the total solar eclipse for about 2 minutes.

If you are not within the path of totality, watching the total solar eclipse from a virtual location is an option as well. You can view it on NASA TV and the agency’s website, beginning at 10:30 a.m. EST on Dec. 14.  Be sure to check it out, as the next total solar eclipse won’t be happening until Dec. 4, 2021.

Top 5 Solar Eclipse Viewing Tips:

  1. Do not stare directly at the Sun. Wear safety approved, protective solar eclipse-viewing glasses to directly view the event or use some indirect means (see below). For more information here are some NASA Safety tips.
  2. To indirectly view the eclipse, create a pinhole camera or box projector. Learn how to build your own here.
  3. Stand under a tree and look at the ground. The trees act as pinhole projectors and will project hundreds of crescent shapes right at your feet.
  4. To capture an eclipse with binoculars, a telescope, or a camera, you must use a safety-approved, protective solar filter on your lens.
  5. Keeping with the theme of 2020 Observe the eclipse virtually! It will be streamed live here.

Sky Watching Highlights for December 2020

In the month of December, stargazers get ready for some excitement in the sky! Catch the year’s best meteor shower, the Geminids, in the middle of the month. Then, witness an extremely close pairing of Jupiter and Saturn that won’t be repeated for decades. And mark the shortest day of the year on the northern winter solstice. Check out the video below produced by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory to learn more!

Sky Watching Highlights for November 2020

Are you ready for November’s sky watching highlights? Cool autumn evenings are a great time to look for the Pleiades star cluster. You’ll also have a couple of great opportunities to observe the Moon with Jupiter and Saturn. Plus, check out the phenomenon known as Earthshine. Learn about all that and more from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s video below!

‘Once in a Blue Moon’ Coming Soon

by Lauren Lambert

There’s an extra special treat coming Earth’s way – a Blue Moon on the night of Oct. 31 for Halloween.

What is a Blue Moon?

According to modern folklore, it is a phenomenon where a Full Moon appears twice in one calendar month. Typically, each month has only one, as Full Moons occur about 29 days apart.

Our first Full Moon of the month – known as a Harvest Moon – occurred on Oct. 1. This is a name given to the Full Moon happening closest to the autumnal equinox – the first day of fall. The Blue Moon coming up is respectively known as the Hunter’s Moon.  Rising in the early evening, the Hunter’s Moon was given its name because it provided plenty of moonlight for hunters to gather meat for the long winter ahead.

One way to make a Blue Moon is by using a blue filter. That's what a photographer did back in 2004 when he photographed this Full Moon rising over Brighton, Massachusetts. Credit: Kostian Iftica
One way to make a Blue Moon is by using a blue filter. That’s what a photographer did back in 2004 when he photographed this Full Moon rising over Brighton, Massachusetts. Credit: Kostian Iftica

While the informal phrase “once in a Blue Moon” refers to something that rarely happens, the same definition rings true for the skies this Halloween. These moons are of significance because they only come every two or three years. In fact, the last Blue Moon occurred on March 31, 2018.

Contrary to its name, a Blue Moon has nothing to do with the Moon having a blue hue. However, very rarely there are actual blue-tinted Moons due to particles thrown into the atmosphere by natural catastrophes. In 1883, an Indonesian volcano called Krakatoa had an eruption so large that it was compared by scientists to a 100-megaton nuclear bomb. Lots of ash from the Krakatoa explosion rose into the atmosphere. Many of these ash particles were about 1 micron in size, which could scatter red light and act as a blue filter. This resulted in the Moon appearing blue.

Blue-colored Moons appeared for years following the 1883 eruption. Many other volcanos and even wildfires throughout history have been known to affect the color of the moon. As a rule of thumb, in order to create a bluish Moon, dust or ash particles must be larger than ~0.6 microns, which is the wavelength of red light. Having said that, what we call a Blue Moon appears pale grey and white – just like the Moon on any other night. Having a second Full Moon in one given month does not change its color.

October’s Blue Moon, however, will be the first Blue Moon to appear on Halloween since 1944. This moon occurred one month following the introduction of the Aggregat 4, or the V-2 rocket. This rocket was the first vehicle capable of reaching the edge of space. In years following, the Apollo Saturn V became its direct descendant.

As we approach October 2020’s Blue Moon, the Artemis Generation prepares to explore the Moon’s surface from a lunar base. NASA’s Artemis program is named after the twin sister to Apollo, the Sun god in Greek mythology, and she is known as the goddess of the Moon. There hasn’t been this much momentum to return to the Moon’s surface since the Apollo missions.

The next Halloween Blue Moon will occur in 2039. By then, the Artemis Generation will hopefully look at Mars from that same lunar base – perhaps passing the torch to an Ares Generation bound for the Red Planet.