Teddy – Atlantic Ocean

Sep 18, 2020 – NASA Estimates Powerful Hurricane Teddy’s Extreme Rainfall

Using a NASA satellite rainfall product that incorporates data from satellites and observations, NASA estimated Hurricane Teddy’s rainfall rates. Teddy is a major hurricane in the Central North Atlantic Ocean.

GPM image of Teddy
On Sept. 18 at 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC), NASA’s IMERG estimated Hurricane Teddy was generating as much as (30 mm/1.18 inches of rain (dark pink) on the western side of its eye. Rainfall throughout most of the storm was occurring between 5 and 15 mm (0.2 to 0.6 inches/yellow and green colors) per hour. The rainfall data was overlaid on infrared imagery from NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite. Credit: NASA/NOAA/NRL

On Sept. 18, NOAA’s National Hurricane Center (NHC) warned that Teddy remains a powerful hurricane over the Central Atlantic Ocean, and large ocean swells are forecast to spread across much of the western Atlantic increasing a rip current threat.

Hurricane Teddy’s Status on Sept. 18

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), the center of Hurricane Teddy was located near latitude 21.6 degrees north and longitude 55.4 degrees west. That is about 550 miles (890 km) east-northeast of the Northern Leeward Islands, and about 935 miles (1,510 km) southeast of Bermuda.

Teddy is moving toward the northwest near 12 mph (19 kph) and this general motion is expected to continue for the next couple of days, followed by a turn to the north by early next week. Maximum sustained winds are near 130 mph (215 kph) with higher gusts. Teddy is a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.  Some fluctuations in strength are expected during the next day or so. The estimated minimum central pressure is 947 millibars.

Estimating Teddy’s Rainfall Rates from Space

NASA’s Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM or IMERG, which is a NASA satellite rainfall product, estimated on Sept. 18 at 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC), Hurricane Teddy was generating as much as 30 mm (1.18 inches) of rain per hour on the western side of its eye. That was the area of where the heaviest rainfall was occurring.

Rainfall throughout most of the rest of the storm was estimated as falling at a rate between 5 and 15 mm (0.2 to 0.6 inches) per hour. At the U.S. Naval Laboratory in Washington, D.C., the IMERG rainfall data was overlaid on infrared imagery from NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite to provide a full extent of the storm.

“Teddy remains a powerful category 4 hurricane with a well-defined eye and intense eyewall,” said John Cangialosi Senior Hurricane Specialist at NHC in Miami, Fla. “There have been occasional dry slots that have eroded some of the convection in the eyewall and rain bands, but these seem to be transient.”

What Does IMERG Do?

This near-real time rainfall estimate comes from the NASA’s IMERG, which combines observations from a fleet of satellites, in near-real time, to provide near-global estimates of precipitation every 30 minutes. By combining NASA precipitation estimates with other data sources, we can gain a greater understanding of major storms that affect our planet.

Instead, what the IMERG does is “morph” high-quality satellite observations along the direction of the steering winds to deliver information about rain at times and places where such satellite overflights did not occur. Information morphing is particularly important over the majority of the world’s surface that lacks ground-radar coverage. Basically, IMERG fills in the blanks between weather observation stations.

NHC Key Messages for Teddy

The NHC issued key messages for Teddy, including about its forecast track and the ocean swells it is generating.

NHC said Teddy is expected to approach Bermuda as a hurricane this weekend and make its closest approach to the island late Sunday or Monday (Sept. 20 or 21). While the exact details of Teddy’s track and intensity near the island are not yet known, the risk of strong winds, storm surge, and heavy rainfall on Bermuda is increasing.

Large swells produced by Teddy are expected to affect portions of the Leeward Islands, the Greater Antilles, the Bahamas, Bermuda, and the southeastern United States during the next few days. These swells could cause life-threatening surf and rip current conditions.

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contribues directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For more information about NASA’s IMERG, visit: https://pmm.nasa.gov/gpm/imerg-global-image

For forecast updates on hurricanes, visit: www.hurricanes.gov

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Teddy – Atlantic Ocean

Sep. 17, 2020 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Catches Nighttime View of Major Hurricane Teddy

An early morning infrared image of Hurricane Teddy taken from NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite shows the proximity of the strengthening hurricane to the Lesser Antilles island chain and Puerto Rico. Teddy is a major hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.

Suomi NPP image of Teddy
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed the North Atlantic Ocean overnight on Sept. 17 at 12:40 a.m. EDT (0440 UTC) and captured a nighttime image of Hurricane Teddy. Puerto Rico and the Lesser Antilles can be seen lit up to the west (left).Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed the North Atlantic Ocean overnight on Sept. 17 at 12:40 a.m. EDT (0440 UTC). The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided a nighttime image of Hurricane Teddy. Puerto Rico and the Lesser Antilles can be seen lit up by night lights to the west in the image. The Lesser Antilles a group of islands that frame the eastern side of the Caribbean Sea.

The image was created using the NASA Worldview application at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

By 11 a.m. EDT infrared imagery revealed Teddy’s satellite appearance had steadily developed. There is now a ragged warming eye surrounded by a ring of convection with cloud tops colder than minus 76 degrees Fahrenheit/minus 60 degrees Celsius.

Teddy’s Status on Sept. 17

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), National Hurricane Center (NHC) said the center of Hurricane Teddy was located near latitude 19.3 degrees north and longitude 53.0 degrees west. Teddy was about 610 miles (980 km) east-northeast of the Lesser Antilles.

Teddy is moving toward the northwest near 12 mph (19 kph) and this motion is expected to continue for the next few days. Maximum sustained winds were near 120 mph (195 kph) with higher gusts.  Teddy is a category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The estimated minimum central pressure is 957 millibars.

Teddy’s Forecast

Some additional strengthening is possible through tonight as Teddy moves northwest. A slow weakening trend is expected to begin over the weekend.

About NASA’s EOSDIS Worldview

NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.”

NASA Researches Earth from Space

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.hurricanes.gov

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Teddy – Atlantic Ocean

Sep. 16, 2020 – NASA Finds Coldest Cloud Tops on Hurricane Teddy’s Western Side

NASA analyzed the cloud top temperatures in Hurricane Teddy using infrared light to determine the strength of the storm. Infrared imagery revealed that the strongest storms were on Teddy’s western side.

AIRS image of Teddy
On Sept. 16 at 12:53 a.m. EDT (0453 UTC) NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed Hurricane Teddy’s cloud top temperatures using the AIRS instrument. AIRS showed the strongest storms with the coldest cloud top temperatures were as cold as or colder than 210 Kelvin (purple) minus 81 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 63.1 degrees Celsius). Credit: NASA JPL/Heidar Thrastarson

An Infrared View of Teddy

One of the ways NASA researches tropical cyclones is using infrared data that provides temperature information. Cloud top temperatures identify where the strongest storms are located. The stronger the storms, the higher they extend into the troposphere, and the colder the cloud top temperatures.

On Sept. 16 at 12:53 a.m. EDT (0453 UTC) NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed the storm using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument. The AIRS imagery showed the strongest storms west of Teddy’s center of circulation. AIRS found coldest cloud top temperatures as cold as or colder 210 Kelvin minus 81 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 63.1 degrees Celsius). NASA research has shown that cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms that have the capability to create heavy rain. The eye was barely visible in the infrared imagery.

NASA then provides data to tropical cyclone meteorologists so they can incorporate it in their forecasts.

Over 10 hours later at 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 16, Andrew Latto, Hurricane Specialist at NOAA’s National Hurricane Center in Miami, Fla, noted, “Teddy’s overall appearance has changed little over the past several hours. Microwave and infrared satellite images depict a well-defined inner core with an eye evident in the microwave imagery. However, visible imagery reveals that the eye remains cloud filled. Over the past few hours, the coldest cloud tops and have become confined to the western portion of the circulation, which could be the early signs of the cyclone experiencing some westerly wind shear.”

Teddy’s Status on Sept. 16

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Hurricane Teddy was located near latitude 16.5 degrees north and longitude 49.7 degrees west. Teddy was centered about 775 miles (1,245 km) east of the Lesser Antilles. Teddy was moving toward the northwest near 12 mph (19 kph) and this general motion is forecast to continue for the next few days. Maximum sustained winds are near 100 mph (155 kph) with higher gusts. The estimated minimum central pressure is 978 millibars.

Teddy’s Forecast

Additional strengthening is expected over the next couple of days, and Teddy could become a major hurricane by late tonight, Sept. 16.

In addition, large swells generated by Teddy are expected to reach the Lesser Antilles and the northeastern coast of South America today and should spread westward to the Greater Antilles, the Bahamas, and Bermuda by Friday, Sept. 18. These swells are likely to cause life-threatening surf and rip current conditions.

NASA Researches Earth from Space

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.hurricanes.gov

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Teddy – Atlantic Ocean

Sep. 15, 2020 – NASA Satellite Imagery Shows Teddy Consolidating

When a tropical cyclone consolidates, it means that it is getting more organized and its circulation is improving. An improved circulation helps make for a stronger storm. Infrared imagery from NASA’s Aqua satellite showed that Teddy was consolidating in the Central North Atlantic Ocean.

Aqua image of Teddy
On Sept. 15 at 12:15 a.m. EDT (0415 UTC), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite gathered temperature information about Teddy’s cloud tops. Some cloud top temperatures were as cold as or colder than minus 70 degrees (red) Fahrenheit (minus 56.6 Celsius) and building thunderstorms around the storm’s core. Credit: NASA/NRL

Infrared Data Reveals Teddy is organizing

On Sept. 15 at 12:15 a.m. EDT (0415 UTC), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite gathered temperature information about Teddy’s cloud tops. Infrared data provides temperature information, and the strongest thunderstorms that reach high into the atmosphere have the coldest cloud top temperatures.

MODIS found some cloud top temperatures were as cold as or colder than minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 56.6 Celsius). Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms with the potential to generate heavy rainfall. The infrared data showed that Teddy’s structure is slowly improving. The infrared imagery and visible imagery revealed that the building of thunderstorms around the storm’s core has increased, despite the continued presence of dry slots.

Teddy’s Status on Sept. 15

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Teddy was located near latitude 14.0 degrees north and longitude 47.0 degrees west. Teddy is located about 960 miles (1,545 km) east of the Lesser Antilles. Teddy is moving toward the west-northwest near 13 mph (20 kph). A steady northwest motion at 10 to 15 mph is expected through the end of the week.

Maximum sustained winds have increased to near 65 mph (100 kph) with higher gusts. Additional strengthening is forecast for the next several days. Teddy will likely become a hurricane later today or tonight and could reach major hurricane strength in a few days. The estimated minimum central pressure is 999 millibars.

Teddy’s Forecast

“Teddy’s low [wind] shear and warm sea surface temperature environment should be conducive for further strengthening, and the NHC intensity forecast is largely unchanged,” noted David Zelinsky, Hurricane Model Diagnostician and Meteorologist at the NHC. “Some dry air in the environment could restrict Teddy’s intensification rate, but is not expected to prevent Teddy from becoming a hurricane later today or tonight. Continued strengthening is expected thereafter and Teddy is forecast to become a major hurricane within the next few days.”

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

NASA’s Aqua satellite is one in a fleet of NASA satellites that provide data for hurricane research.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.hurricanes.gov

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Teddy – Atlantic Ocean

Sep. 14, 2020 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Helps Confirm Teddy Now a Record-Setting Tropical Storm

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided an infrared image of Tropical Depression 20 in that helped confirm it organized and strengthened into Tropical Storm Teddy. Teddy, which has broken a hurricane season record, is expected to become a major hurricane later in the week, according to the National Hurricane Center (NHC).

Suomi NPP Image of Teddy
This nighttime image from NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite revealed a more organized Tropical Depression 20 helping confirm it had become Tropical Storm Teddy in the Central Atlantic Ocean around midnight on Sept. 14. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

Tropical Depression 20 formed late on Saturday, Sept. 12 in the Central North Atlantic Ocean, about 2,030 miles (3,265 km) east of the Northern Leeward Islands. It maintained tropical depression status until this morning, Sept. 14, when infrared satellite data helped confirm it had strengthened and organized. NHC reported this makes Tropical Storm Teddy the earliest 19th named storm, besting the unnamed tropical storm on October 4, 2005.

NASA’s Night-Time View of Elida’s Intensification

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided a nighttime image of Tropical Depression 20. The nighttime image, taken around midnight on Sept. 14, revealed that Tropical Depression 20 had become more organized helping confirm that it had become Tropical Storm Teddy in the Central Atlantic Ocean. The image was created using the NASA Worldview application at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

NHC Senior Hurricane Forecaster Stacy Stewart noted, “Earlier ASCAT [scatterometer that measures wind speed] data indicated peak winds of 33 knots in the northwestern quadrant of the depression. Since then, convection has increased and so have the various satellite intensity estimates. The initial intensity is increased to 35 knots [40 mph] based on the ASCAT data, and satellite estimates of 35 knots from TAFB [NOAA’s Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch] and 38 knots from University of Wisconsin-Madison-CIMSS SATCON.” The CIMSS Satellite Consensus (SATCON) product blends tropical cyclone intensity estimates derived from multiple objective algorithms to produce an ensemble estimate of intensity for current tropical cyclones worldwide.

Teddy’s Status on Sept. 14

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) on Sept. 14, the center of Tropical Storm Teddy was located near latitude 13.4 degrees north and longitude 40.4 degrees west. Teddy is located about 1,405 miles (2,260 km) east of the Lesser Antilles. Teddy is moving toward the west-northwest near 14 mph (22 kph). Maximum sustained winds have increased to near 40 mph (65 kph) with higher gusts. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1004 millibars.

Teddy’s Forecast

A continued west-northwestward motion is expected for the next day or two followed by a turn toward the northwest by mid-week. Additional strengthening is anticipated, and Teddy is forecast to become a hurricane in a couple of days.

Large swells generated by Tropical Storm Teddy are expected to reach the Lesser Antilles and the northeastern coast of South America on Wednesday. These swells are likely to cause life-threatening surf and rip current conditions.

About NASA’s EOSDIS Worldview

NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.”

NASA Researches Earth from Space

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center