Delta II Added to Historic Line-up at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex Rocket Garden

A ribbon-cutting ceremony welcomes the last United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket to the lineup of historic launch vehicles in the Rocket Garden at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, on March 23, 2021. Cutting the ribbon, from left are Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana, Tim Dunn, launch director, Launch Services Program, and Therrin Protze, chief operating officer, Delaware North/KSCVC.
A ribbon-cutting ceremony welcomes the last United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket to the lineup of historic launch vehicles in the Rocket Garden at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, on March 23, 2021. Cutting the ribbon, from left are Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana, Tim Dunn, launch director, Launch Services Program, and Therrin Protze, chief operating officer, Delaware North/KSCVC. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

The last United Launch Alliance (ULA) Delta II rocket became a permanent resident of the Rocket Garden at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida on March 23, 2021. Representatives from the Visitor Complex, ULA, Kennedy Space Center, NASA’s Launch Services Program, and the 45th Space Wing gathered for a ribbon cutting to commemorate the addition of the rocket to the line-up.

During a ribbon-cutting ceremony, the last United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket joins the lineup of historic launch vehicles in the Rocket Garden at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, on March 23, 2021.
During a ribbon-cutting ceremony, the last United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket joins the lineup of historic launch vehicles in the Rocket Garden at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida, on March 23, 2021. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

“It’s great having this ULA Delta II take its place among the other historic vehicles in our Rocket Garden,” said Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana. “The Delta II launched so many critical NASA science missions throughout our solar system as well as to planet Earth, and now it begins its second career on a mission of inspiration for all our future rocket scientists and engineers visiting the Kennedy Space Center.”

Delta II took its place among iconic giants, joining an original Delta, Mercury-Redstone, Mercury-Atlas, Gemini-Titan, the Junos, Atlas-Agena and Saturn 1B.

Following the Delta II’s final mission in 2018, ULA selected Kennedy’s Visitor Complex to receive a remaining vehicle for an outdoor display to inspire current and future generations to learn about the rocket’s history.

“Today is a historic day for our ULA team. We are excited to honor the legacy of this rocket that was so instrumental in delivering critical missions for NASA, the Department of Defense and commercial customers,” said Ron Fortson, director and general manager of United Launch Alliance, “Today we honor not only the Delta II’s historical impact, but also the men and women who designed, built, and launched it for nearly three decades.”

For nearly 30 years, the Delta II was the industry workhorse for NASA and civilian scientists, the U.S. military, and commercial clients. The Delta II launched more than 230 satellites on 155 flights to deploy the Global Positioning System (GPS), explore the solar system, and serve the medium-class commercial space launch market. Delta II soared into space from both coasts of the United States, launching from two side-by-side pads at Cape Canaveral’s Space Launch Complex (SLC)-17 in Florida, and the SLC-2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. NASA’s Launch Services Program launched the ICESat-2 spacecraft on the final Delta II launch on Sept. 15, 2018, from Vandenberg.

“I was excited to see Delta II in the Rocket Garden against a beautiful blue sky. I am so thankful for the ULA/Delaware North collaboration that made this display possible,” said Tim Dunn, Launch Services Program launch director. “When I think of Delta II, I think of the launch team, the engineers, analysts, and technicians who contributed to this rocket’s unprecedented record of success, consistent performance, and its appropriate nickname, ‘The Workhorse.’ I believe the success of this rocket has left a huge ripple effect on the launch systems we have today.”

McDonnell Douglas created the rocket in the late 1980s to fulfill the U.S. Air Force’s need for a launch vehicle to carry the GPS first generation of operational satellites into space and create a worldwide precision navigation network.

NASA Announces Lunar Delivery Challenge Winners

An illustration of astronauts on the Moon.
An illustration of astronauts on the Moon. Photo credit: NASA

With the Artemis program, NASA will send the first woman and next man to the surface of the Moon, construct a lunar orbiting outpost, and establish a sustainable presence. This will require deliveries of supplies and equipment to the lunar surface, but how to unload the cargo once it arrives is an open question. NASA created the Lunar Delivery Challenge to seek ideas from the public for practical and cost-effective solutions to unload payloads onto the surface of the Moon.

The challenge received 224 entries before the submission period closed Jan. 19, 2021. The ideas came from various types of space enthusiasts who share a passion for human space exploration, and participants varied from student teams, to individuals from the private sector, to parent-child duos.

NASA awarded $25,000 in total prizes to six teams, including one first place winner with a prize of $10,000; two second place winners with prizes of $4,500 each; and three third place winners with prizes of $2,000 each:

  • First Place – Lightweight Inflatable Delivery System (LIDS) by Lauren Fell
  • Second Place – OO.A – mOOngoAt by Team FRD
  • Second Place – Scalable Payload Delivery System (SPaDeS) by Team SPaDeS
  • Third Place – Transporter and Gantry (L-TAG) by Team AA-Star
  • Third Place – Modular Lunar Cargo Handling System by Team Sparkletron
  • Third Place – Truss Manipulator by Wendell Chun

For a link to the full story, and to read about each of the winning concepts, click here.

 

Kennedy Scientist Journeys to End of Earth for Plant Research: Astrobotanist Log 1

Neumayer III Station in Antarctica.
Neumayer III Station in Antarctica. Photo credit: DLR/NASA/Jess Bunchek

After training for months in Germany, Jess Bunchek, a plant scientist with NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, departed Dec. 20, 2020, for the German Neumayer III Station in Antarctica, operated by the Alfred Wegner Institute (AWI). Working at the EDEN ISS greenhouse managed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), Bunchek will research growing food crops in a remote, harsh setting, similar to what astronauts experience in space. Here is her account of the journey to EDEN ISS.

The 2021 overwintering team in front of Polarstern upon arrival in Antarctica.
The 2021 overwintering team in front of Polarstern upon arrival in Antarctica. Back row L-R: mechanical engineer Florian Koch, chef Tanguy Doron, station leader and surgeon Peter Jonczyk, meteorologist Paul Ockenfuss, electrical engineer Markus Baden, geophysicist Lorenz Marten. Front row L-R: atmospheric chemist Linda Ort, IT and radio specialist Theresa Thoma, geophysicist Timo Dornhoefer, agronomist/astrobotanist Jess Bunchek. Photo credit: AWI/Tim Heitland

In a typical year, you can reach the Neumayer III Station in Antarctica by air, but as we all know, the past year has been anything but typical. With countries restricting travelers and flights being cancelled, the institute that runs Neumayer came up with an alternative: go by ship. The icebreaker RV Polarstern, German for “polar star,” already travels annually from Germany to Neumayer to resupply the station, so adding a few passengers to this year’s transit was a logical and COVID-safe solution for AWI.

Icebreaker RV Polarstern that transported the team from Germany to Antarctica on a non-stop trip.
Icebreaker RV Polarstern that transported the team from Germany to Antarctica on a non-stop trip. Credit: DLR/NASA/Jess Bunchek

Our month-long voyage started with a storm in the English Channel and Bay of Biscay. The ship cut through 16-foot (5-meter) waves in spectacular fashion, although inside the ship, many of us rookies looked a bit, well, green from seasickness. Fortunately, we found ourselves in calmer seas with beautiful weather by the time we passed the Grand Canary Islands, which gave us the chance to fully appreciate the purpose and privilege of our voyage. That we are still able to overwinter while the world has come to a halt due to the pandemic has not been lost on us in the slightest.

The temperature quickly dropped as we approached the Antarctic Circle at 60 degrees south latitude, and soon we found ourselves in polar day where the Sun does not set, and sea ice is common. The latter was no problem for Polarstern, which is designed to navigate such an environment. In the Antarctic, orcas are the greatest predatorial threat to seals and penguins, which prefer to stay on the ice as we pass by than risk diving into the water. On multiple occasions, the large ship had to navigate around sunbathing seals.

We awoke early one morning parked next to the Ekstrøm Ice Shelf. Welcome to Antarctica! The next step was to unload Polarstern of passengers and cargo and move to Neumayer, still 12 miles (20 km) away. In the absence of buildings, trees, or mountains, our landmarks were now the colossal icebergs in nearby Atka Bay.

Navigating polar regions goes beyond the design of an icebreaker ship. In thick sea ice, helicopters are crucial for surveying the surrounding area and determining the best route for Polarstern. They also can quickly run temperature-critical and fragile supplies – such as seeds for EDEN ISS – from the ship to Neumayer while checking the long-term condition of the shelf ice.

However, all other transit is done on the ice. Snowmobiles are the ideal option for shorter, lighter trips, while tracked plows are better for heavy-duty jobs such as hauling, plowing, or longer travel.

Without further ado, I present AWI’s 41st overwintering team. Our 10-person crew consists of mechanic and electrical technician support, a cook, an IT and radio specialist, a surgeon, and scientists in the areas of geophysics, atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, and me, an agronomist and astrobotanist. Although my area of research focuses on supplying fresh crops to the crew while testing capabilities for space crop production, I would be remiss to not mention the role that marine and polar science play in climate change research. Traveling the length of the Atlantic Ocean reinforced a seemingly obvious but noteworthy theme: Our oceans and poles are humbling and marvelous. From the dark hues of icy, choppy waters to the velvet-smooth waves and warm, vibrant blue-greens near the Equator, to the frozen shelf ice that the 10 of us will call home for the next year, our Earth sure is a beautiful planet.

Now, we’re preparing the EDEN ISS greenhouse for the upcoming season, and I will post again soon.

Click here to view the story and additional photos on Instagram.

Mammoth Artemis I Rocket Boosters Stacked on Mobile Launcher

The Space Launch System boosters are stacked on the mobile launcher inside the Vehicle Assembly Building.
The Space Launch System twin solid rocket boosters are fully assembled and stacked on the mobile launcher inside the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida on March 3, 2021. Photo credit: NASA/Isaac Watson

Leerlo en español aquí.

Stacking is complete for the twin Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket boosters for NASA’s Artemis I mission. Over several weeks, workers used one of five massive cranes to place 10 booster segments and nose assemblies on the mobile launcher inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Engineers with Exploration Ground Systems placed the first segment on Nov. 21, 2020, and continued the process until the final nose assembly was placed on March 2.

Prior to the arrival of the core stage, the team will finish installing electrical instrumentation and pyrotechnics, then test the systems on the boosters. When the SLS core stage arrives at Kennedy, technicians will transport it to the VAB and then stack it on the mobile launcher between the two boosters.

The SLS will be the most powerful rocket in the world, producing up to 8.8 million pounds of thrust during its Artemis I launch.

“Seeing the Space Launch System solid rocket boosters stacked completely on the Mobile Launcher for the first time makes me proud of the entire team especially  the Exploration Ground Systems crew at Kennedy who are assembling them and also the teams at Marshall and Northrop Grumman who designed, tested and built them,” said Bruce Tiller, the SLS boosters manager at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. “This team has created the tallest, most powerful boosters ever built for flight, boosters that will help launch the Artemis I mission to the Moon.”

Artemis I will be an uncrewed test of the Orion spacecraft and SLS rocket as an integrated system ahead of crewed flights to the Moon. Under the Artemis program, NASA aims to land the first woman and the next man on the Moon in 2024 and establish sustainable lunar exploration by the end of the decade.

NASA and Boeing Evaluating Launch Date for Orbital Flight Test-2

Technicians observe Boeing’s Starliner crew module being placed on top of the service module in the Commercial Crew and Cargo Processing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Jan. 14, 2021. The Starliner spacecraft is being prepared for Boeing’s second Orbital Flight Test (OFT-2). As part of the agency’s Commercial Crew Program, OFT-2 is a critical developmental milestone on the company’s path to fly crew missions for NASA. Credit: Boeing/John Proferes

NASA and Boeing are evaluating a new target launch date for the CST-100 Starliner’s Orbital Flight Test-2 (OFT-2) to the International Space Station after winter storms in Houston, and the recent replacement of avionics boxes, set the program back about two weeks. NASA also is weighing the volume of verification and validation analysis required prior to the test flight and the visiting vehicle schedule at the International Space Station.

Previously, the launch was targeted for no earlier than April 2.

An important factor the teams are evaluating is the visiting vehicle schedule at the International Space Station, which already has a scheduled crewed Soyuz launch and NASA’s SpaceX Crew-2 mission in April. Based on the current traffic at the space station, NASA does not anticipate that OFT-2 can be accomplished later in April. NASA and Boeing are working to find the earliest possible launch date.

“Boeing and NASA have worked extremely hard to support an early-April launch but we need to assess alternatives to ensure NASA’s safety work can be accomplished. NASA and Boeing know we fly together,” said Kathy Lueders, associate administrator, NASA’s Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. “Boeing has done an incredible amount of work on Starliner to be ready for flight and we’ll provide an update soon on when we expect to launch the OFT-2 mission.”

“I’m grateful for the extraordinary work being undertaken by our NASA partners as we progress towards our OFT-2 mission,” said John Vollmer, vice president and program manager of Boeing’s Commercial Crew Program. “And I’m very proud of the Boeing Starliner team for working so diligently to get the hardware, software and certification closure products ready for flight. We’re committed to demonstrating the safety and quality of our spacecraft and progressing to our crewed test flight and the missions beyond.”

The company has been conducting dry-runs ahead of an end-to-end mission rehearsal that will allow the operations team to practice and observe integrated interactions through the whole mission profile, from launch to docking and undocking to landing. Additionally, power-on testing and checkouts of the OFT-2 vehicle, with new avionics boxes installed, have been completed successfully. Spacecraft fueling operations and the stacking of the launch vehicle are also ready to commence.

Artemis I Boosters Reach New Heights

Space Launch System boosters for the Artemis I mission are stacked in the Vehicle Assembly Building.
In High Bay 3 of the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the left-hand and right-hand forward segments are secured on top of the center forward segments on the mobile launcher (ML) for the Space Launch System (SLS) on Feb. 24, 2021. Photo credit: NASA/Glenn Benson

NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket boosters have grown taller with the addition of the fifth and final pair of motor segments in preparation for the launch of Artemis I later this year. At NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, engineers with Exploration Ground Systems lowered the final solid rocket booster into place on the mobile launcher on Feb. 23. Up next, the nose assemblies will be placed atop the segments to complete the boosters. The twin boosters will power the first flight of the agency’s new deep space rocket during the launch of Artemis I. This mission is an uncrewed flight to test the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft as an integrated system, preparing the way for Artemis II and other crewed flights to the Moon.

SLS Rocket Stage and Orion Share Space at Kennedy ahead of Artemis I

The ICPS is inside the Multi-Payload Process Facility at Kennedy Space Center on Feb. 18, 2021.
The Space Launch System (SLS) rocket’s interim cryogenic propulsion stage (ICPS) moved into the Multi-Payload Processing Facility February 18, 2021, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida for the Artemis I mission. Photo credit: NASA/Glenn Benson

The Space Launch System (SLS) rocket’s interim cryogenic propulsion stage (ICPS) moved into the Multi-Payload Processing Facility February 18, 2021, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida alongside one of its flight partners for the Artemis I mission, the Orion spacecraft. Both pieces of hardware will undergo fueling and servicing in the facility ahead of launch by teams from NASA’s Exploration Ground Systems and their primary contractor, Jacobs Technology. The rocket stage and Orion will remain close during their journey to space.

The ICPS is moved into the Multi-Payload Process Facility on Feb. 18, 2021 at Kennedy Space Center.
The interim cryogenic propulsion stage is in view inside the Multi-Payload Processing Facility on Feb. 18, 2021, at Kennedy Space Center. Photo credit: NASA/Glenn Benson

Built by United Launch Alliance and Boeing, the ICPS will be positioned above the core stage and will provide the power needed to give Orion the big push it needs to break out of Earth orbit on a precise trajectory toward the Moon during Artemis I.

This is the first time since the shuttle program that two pieces of flight hardware have been processed inside this facility at the same time. Once final checkouts are complete, the ICPS and Orion will part ways on the ground and be reunited in the Vehicle Assembly Building for integration onto the SLS rocket.

Artemis I will be an integrated flight test of the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft ahead of the crewed flights to the Moon. Under the Artemis program, NASA will land the first woman and the next man on the lunar surface and establish a sustainable presence at the Moon to prepare for human missions to Mars.

View additional photos here.

Kennedy Headquarters Sign Ties Spaceport’s History and Future

The refurbished sign from the original Headquarters building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida is installed by the main entrance of the new Central Campus Headquarters, Feb. 18, 2021.
The refurbished sign from the original Headquarters building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida is installed by the main entrance of the new Central Campus Headquarters, Feb. 18, 2021. Photo credit: NASA/Glen Benson

Employees and visitors entering the new Central Campus Headquarters building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida will be welcomed by a piece of history at the facility’s main door.

Kennedy’s original headquarters was completed in May 1965. Photo credit: NASA/Jack Pfaller

The sign originally marked the entrance to Kennedy’s first headquarters building, dating back to the facility’s completion in May 1965. At the time, the Florida spaceport was focused on Gemini, the program that paved the way for the Moon landings of Apollo.

In February, the refurbished sign was installed at the front entrance to Kennedy’s new, modern headquarters. It reads: “National Aeronautics and Space Administration – Kennedy Space Center Headquarters.”

Kennedy's new headquarters
Kennedy Space Center’s new seven-story Central Campus Headquarters building opened in May 2019. Photo credit: NASA/Ben Smegelsky

The new facility opened in May 2019 with a variety of sustainability features and space for more than 500 NASA and contractor employees. Like the original building, the Central Campus Headquarters is the administrative center of all Kennedy activities, housing offices for center leadership, several directorates and programs, and shared services.

The 200,000-square-foot building is the hub of the center’s growing Central Campus, a symbol of Kennedy’s status as the nation’s premier, multi-user spaceport. The new headquarters opened at the start of another new era in spaceflight as Kennedy ramps up for flights to the Moon, this time with the Artemis program.

NASA’s Commercial Crew Program Manager Named Federal Engineer of the Year

Steve Stich is the manager of NASA's Commercial Crew Program.
Steve Stich, now manager of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program, monitors the countdown during a dress rehearsal in preparation for the launch of a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket carrying the company’s Crew Dragon spacecraft on NASA’s SpaceX Demo-2 mission with NASA astronauts Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley onboard, Saturday, May 23, 2020, in firing room four of the Launch Control Center at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Photo credit: NASA/Joel Kowsky

The National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) has named Steve Stich, manager of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program (CCP), as the agency’s Federal Engineer of the Year. Sponsored by Professional Engineers in Government, the award honors engineers of federal agencies that employ at least 50 engineers worldwide.

Stich was recognized during a virtual award ceremony on Wednesday, Feb. 24, alongside recipients from the National Park Service, the Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Air Force, and others.

“This is such an honor and one granted based on the tremendous team with which I am privileged to work,” Stich said. “I’m so proud of everything that we’ve accomplished together, and I’m really looking forward to what lies ahead this year for CCP and NASA as a whole.”

Stich oversees the development of commercial spacecraft and the certification required to safely send astronauts to the International Space Station. As the CCP manager, Stich played a role in returning human spaceflight capability to the United States following the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program in 2011.

He led the agency’s SpaceX Demo-2 mission that carried NASA astronauts Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley to the space station and returned them safely to Earth, validating SpaceX’s transportation system for recurring, operational missions to the orbiting laboratory. Leading up to the mission, Stich provided final approval on vehicle design changes and system and vehicle component certifications. He also oversaw additional testing as required to reduce technical risk.

In the citation released from NASA Johnson Space Center’s Award Office, Stich is recognized for his “exceptional leadership, vehicle design expertise, and risk-mitigation, paving the way for NASA to enable commercial low-Earth orbit (LEO) space transportation and for expanding access to space for users across the government, commercial customers, and academia.”

He first started his career at NASA in 1987 and, since then, has led teams within multiple organizations and programs, including Johnson’s Engineering, NASA’s White Sands Test Facility, the shuttle program, and Johnson’s Advanced Exploration Systems. His more than 33 years of expertise at NASA has allowed the agency to continue conducting technology and research investigations aboard the orbiting laboratory and also helped lay the framework for future deep space exploration missions under the Artemis program.

For a full list of award recipients, as well as the top 10 finalists for the NSPE 2021 Federal Engineer of the Year, visit https://www.nspe.org/resources/interest-groups/government/federal-engineer-the-year.

Kennedy Announces Winner for 2020 Best of KSC Software Competition

Members of the development team that redesigned the SpecsIntact software at Kennedy Space Center.
The development team that redesigned the SpecsIntact software at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida is made up of NASA and contractor employees from across the center. In the front row, from left is Candy Thomas, Tammy Edelman, and Martha Muller. Middle row, from left is Carly Helton, Marcelo Dasilva, Eric Lockshine, Cheryl Fitz-Simon, and Maria Zamora. Back row, from left is Jim Whitehead, Pierre Gravelat, Stephan Whytsell. Members of the team not pictured are Dan Evans, Belle Graziano, Eric Hall, Lelia Hancock, Justin Junod, John Merrick, Jim Morrison, Julie Nicely, Phil Nicholson, Gerard Sczepura, Daniel Smith, and Jeanne Yow. Photo credit: NASA

NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, a premier multi-user spaceport, uses research and innovation to support the future of space exploration. Kennedy’s annual Best of KSC Software competition is an employee-driven contest that fosters creativity and enables new discoveries to improve the quality of life on Earth and the exploration of our solar system and beyond.

Close-up view of the flame trench and flame deflector and Launch Pad 39B.
A close-up view of the flame trench and flame deflector at Launch Pad 39B at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida on July 26, 2018. The launch pad has undergone upgrades and modifications to accommodate NASA’s Space Launch System and Orion spacecraft for Artemis I and other deep space missions. New heat-resistant bricks have been installed on the walls and a new flame deflector is in place. Photo Credit: NASA/Cory Huston

The 2020 winner of Best of KSC Software was SpecsIntact 5. The development team, made up of NASA employees and contractors from across the center, earned this distinction by redesigning the SpecsIntact software. This automated specification management system is used in construction projects worldwide. The upgraded system reduces the time and cost required to produce facility specifications with an easy and intuitive interface that assists with quality control.

The team at Kennedy Space Center manages the SpecsIntact system, which also is used by many federal and state agencies, including the U.S. military. At Kennedy, NASA used previous versions of the software for the design, construction, and upgrades of several facilities, including modification of the spaceport’s headquarters building and upgrades to the main flame deflector in the flame trench at Launch Pad 39B.

A view looking up at the 10 levels of work platforms in High Bay 3 inside the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The work platforms will surround and provide access for service and processing of NASA’s Space Launch System rocket and Orion spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA/Glenn Benson

The software was also instrumental to the renovation of High Bay 3 inside the Vehicle Assembly Building in preparation for NASA’s first integrated launch of the Space Launch System rocket and Orion spacecraft as part of the agency’s Artemis program.

The SpecsIntact system has evolved significantly since first conceived at NASA in 1965 to support applications across both the government and private sector. NASA’s Technology Transfer Program ensures that innovations developed for exploration and discovery are broadly available to the public, maximizing the benefit to the nation. The program enables U.S. industry efforts to find new applications for NASA technologies on Earth and for human space exploration, including deep space missions to the Moon and Mars.