Editor’s note:NASA research test pilot and aerospace engineer Troy Asher is the Armstrong Senior Representative for the second half of the deployment.
We have completed the first phase of the final portion of the New Zealand deployment, with the first three flights with the GREAT Instrument (the German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies). The aircraft has been behaving well, and we have gotten all planned data, except for one leg on the first flight (see below).
Weather has not been overly challenging although it is certainly wintertime here. Takeoff times have been on time every night due to the wonderful help we have received from the Christchurch Tower control professionals. Despite poor connectivity via high frequency (HF) radio communications and the Iridium (satellite) phone while flying in the extreme southerly latitudes, Auckland Control has worked with us and we have received virtually every flight path change we have requested.
Two nights ago, we used our new in-flight Internet system (lovingly known as “Skynet”) to do our coordination with Auckland Control when no other means would work. They would launch search and rescue efforts if they lose contact with an aircraft for 15 minutes beyond the planned contact time, but due to timely calls from us over Skype at 62-degrees South over the southern Pacific, all was well. This new capability will certainly continue to be a benefit for us in the future.
Flight 228, July 12, 2015
The first mission of the deployment for the GREAT instrument team was a very successful flight for four of the flight’s five science legs. Unfortunately, on one of the science legs we experienced a computer system crash, which eventually led to a complete loss of that observing leg. The other four legs collected 100 percent of the planned science. The airplane came home healthy and was ready for the following night.
Flight 229, July 13, 2015
The second flight for GREAT was an extremely successful one. We collected all planned data on each leg, and even a bit more on some. Also, we had incredibly bright and very long lasting aurorae. The mission was enhanced by the use of Skynet to accomplish position reports with Auckland Control over Skype. The HF radio and Iridium phone were both not receiving any signal, but Skynet was working well.
Flight 230, July 14, 2015
Another very good flight with more than 100 percent of the planned data gathered on every leg. There were some challenges along the way, but the efficiency of the mission crew allowed them to quickly breeze through issues with no loss of science observations. The GREAT science team reports they are very happy with the results they have gotten with extremely low water vapor levels, as was also seen on the 2013 deployment to Christchurch.
SOFIA concluded research flights from Christchurch, New Zealand, on July 22, and returned to its home base of Palmdale, California, on July 24, 2015.
There are 60 busy scientists and support specialists in Christchurch, New Zealand, but everyone paused on Monday evening, June 29. That’s when the mission briefing room was packed to capacity with everyone anticipating the night’s flight. There was a buzz in the air; as the briefing went on, more and more people were caught up in it.
The night’s mission was to observe Pluto as it passed in front of a star. The event, known as an occultation, would cast Pluto’s faint shadow across the Earth’s surface, and the center of that shadow would pass somewhere off the southern coast of New Zealand. Many ground-based observatories and research teams would be observing the occultation as well, but SOFIA, NASA’s largest airborne observatory, would attempt to fly exactly in the center of the shadow to observe the occultation from the ideal vantage point.
Should SOFIA capture the occultation, the research teams would be able to determine the detailed pressure and temperature profile of Pluto’s atmosphere, and verify if there are aerosol particles or dust in the dwarf planet’s atmosphere. If SOFIA were to hit the shadow in the exact mid-point, researchers could even determine whether there are winds in Pluto’s atmosphere and learn how they behave.
As the briefing went on, Mission Director Nancy McKown reminded everyone that this was only one of 14 science missions planned during the deployment, which includes observations of more than 40 celestial objects, each just as important as the next. Her attempt at calming the excitement in the room lasted for a few short minutes as people reflected on SOFIA’s overall mission, but the excitement was soon back in full force.
Research Scientist Michael Person from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) also spoke about the night’s mission. Person’s area of research focuses on the techniques needed to observe stellar occultations, eclipses, and transits. He has a special interest in Triton, Pluto, and a number of objects that reside in the Kuiper Belt that stretches from Neptune out past Pluto. As Principal Investigator for this flight’s Pluto occultation observations, Person would be responsible for coordinating the work of all of the instrument teams on board.
A Little Bit of Back Story
An entire room full of science specialists, led by Jeff VanCleve and Ken Bower, had been working on where to fly SOFIA for the night’s observations. They looked at the weather forecast and developed a number of flight plans for a variety of possibilities, depending upon where the shadow would fall. Some predictions called for the center of Pluto’s shadow to fall north of Wellington, New Zealand, while others put it between the island nation and Antarctica. Working with observers at the U.S. Naval Observatory and Lowell Observatory’s Discovery Channel Telescope, both in Flagstaff, Arizona, with additional support from telescopes in Australia and Chile, Pluto observations were made and the data was provided to astronomers at MIT. They in turn made calculations to generate predictions for Pluto’s path that were provided to the SOFIA team, who generated a flight plan that would put the observatory in the shadow’s track.
Once the science flight plan was generated, it was turned over to SOFIA’s navigator for the flight, Jeff Wilson, who then converted it for use by air traffic controllers.
The observations would be made at 39,000 feet, an altitude that did not require maximum thrust from SOFIA’s four 50,000 pound thrust JT-9D-7J engines. The air at 39,000 feet was predicted to be very clear of infrared-blocking water vapor, and flying at the lower observation altitude provided more reserve power to the pilots in case they needed to make up a minute or two on the flight plan to intercept the shadow at the precise point.
Below the cockpit, on SOFIA’s main science deck, teams coordinated by Instrument Scientist Maureen Savage would monitor the three instruments used together to capture the occultation:
The First Light Infrared TEst CAMera (FLITECAM), an infrared camera collecting data between wavelengths of 1 and 5.5 microns.
The High Speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations, HIPO – Principal Investigator Ted Dunham, a visible light camera that was co-mounted with FLITECAM.
Fun fact: When FLITECAM and HIPO are mounted together, they are known as “FLIPO.”
The third instrument in use was the Focal Plane Imager-Plus (FPI+), a highly sensitive tracking camera on board SOFIA that can also be used as a photometer collecting data at visible and near-infrared wavelengths between 0.36 and 1.1 microns. FPI+ is managed by a team from the German SOFIA Institute at the University of Stuttgart, with Principal Investigator Jürgen Wolf heading the team.
All three-instrument teams would work together on this flight to ensure the success of their observations both individually and as a group.
The SOFIA team’s Pluto fever was being fed by the anticipated success as well as a keen awareness of NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, which will pass by the distant celestial body on July 14. Data from SOFIA’s observations will be an important part of a decades-long study of Pluto’s atmosphere that provides a baseline and context for New Horizon’s fly-by observations. Studying a target with as wide a variety of sensors as possible results in the most complete understanding of an object. That’s why NASA will often observe a celestial object with sensors that cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. In Pluto’s case, New Horizons provides ultraviolet, radio, and visible wavelength coverage while SOFIA collects data in both the visible and infrared bands.
SOFIA is a GO!
As the mission briefing continued, each of the responsible team leads presented the status of their part of the mission.
The command pilot for the flight would be Clayton “Ace” Beale. Ace briefed the weather, fuel load, alternate landing fields, in case Christchurch’s notorious fog rolled in, and discussed flight timing for the mission.
Navigator Jeff Wilson, call sign “Elvis,” presented the night’s flight plan with the caveat that it might change depending upon the information received during the flight on Pluto’s estimated track. In flight, Wilson would collaborate with Jeff VanCleve and co-Mission Director Karina Leppik as updated Pluto shadow position forecasts were received from MIT.
Aircraft Operations Engineer Andrew Fischer said, “All aircraft systems are ready.” Fischer’s words captured the work of Aircraft Crew Chiefs Jerry Dobbins and Sal Ramirez and their crew of more than 20 technicians and engineers who worked in often cold and wet conditions to prepare the aircraft and its airborne systems for the flight.
Oliver Ziele, representing the telescope team from the German SOFIA Institute, reported: “The telescope is balanced and the telescope bearing temperature is within limits.”
Matt Enga, whose group is responsible for all of the mission communication systems on board the observatory – computers that interface between the telescope to the instruments – reported all systems were ready for the night’s mission.
Shawn Granen from SOFIA’s information technology group talked about computer protocols on the flight and then announced: “The celestial map overlays have been uploaded.”
SOFIA is a GO!
With all systems reporting as ready for the flight, Mission Director McKown reviewed the mission timing – when the crew had to board, when the door would close, taxi and takeoff times. With that, the excited crew grabbed their gear and headed for the plane.
Once on board, last minute details were attended to and the main cabin door was closed. On-board, in-flight safety technicians Mike Moore and Steve Laney gave the safety briefing and everyone took their seats. The engines were brought to life, and with clearance from the tower SOFIA headed out to the runway.
Having received permission from the control tower to take the runway and take off, Ace Beale positioned SOFIA facing south on Christchurch International Airport’s Runway 20. Beale, co-pilot Dean Neeley, and flight engineer Tom Speer completed their checklists and with the brakes holding SOFIA back, all four engine throttles were pushed forward as the flying observatory began to shake, building up thrust. At 10:07 p.m., local time, SOFIA thundered down the runway lifting off into the cold New Zealand night sky.
SOFIA flew to the south to set-up and test all systems. There were a couple of rough patches as systems were synchronized, but nothing the experienced group on board could not handle.
As the instrument teams were watching Pluto’s movements across the night sky, an updated prediction of the shadow’s path was received on board. Jeff Van Cleve’s pencil was processing the data and converting the prediction into a flight path. He then went upstairs to the cockpit to confirm his numbers, calling MIT on the aircraft’s satellite phone.
Having replanned the flight with navigator Wilson to intercept the shadow everything was set. Then another further updated position prediction came in. This one required the aircraft to be positioned 227 km (141 miles) north of the current flight path.
The race was on. SOFIA was trying to reposition itself before the Pluto’s shadow passed in front of it.
On the screen, everyone on board could see Pluto begin to approach the occulting star. Then it got closer. Then closer. The excitement was building on the science deck.
At a point approximately -44.8 latitude by 171.0 longitude SOFIA’s instruments captured Pluto’s shadow. As SOFIA reached the precise center of Pluto’s shadow, viewing Pluto exactly centered in front of the star, the star’s light brightened, which was reflected on the light curve as an obvious spike in the center. That momentary “central flash” held a wealth of data about Pluto’s atmosphere. As Pluto completed its pass in front of the star, there was loud shouting, clapping, handshaking, and congratulating all around!
“In this single flight we were able to obtain observations covering four different wavelengths as close to the predicted center of the occultation as possible, which shows the power and flexibility of SOFIA to go wherever is required for events like these,” said Ryan Hamilton of SOFIA’s FLITECAM team. “We faced challenges at every point and overcame them all, and we’re all excited as can be for the next part of these observations: the science and interpretation!”
Shortly after the mission, occultation principal investigator Michael Person said, “All of the instrument teams worked together very well to get us the best possible result. The HIPO team, based at Lowell Observatory, the UCLA-based FLITECAM team, and the German FPI team all came together to help each other overcome challenges during the mission, resulting in successful observations of the event from all cameras. I couldn’t be more pleased with the cooperation from the instrument teams, the aircraft, and observatory personnel with our efforts to observe this historic occultation.
Two reporters, Nadia Drake and Govert Schilling were on board this flight and documented the experience. Their articles can be found below.
Conducting SOFIA science operations more than 6,900 miles (11,100 km) from our home base in Palmdale, California, requires a great deal of planning and calls for a diverse group of researchers, aircraft technicians, facility managers, and outside vendors to work as a team. Should any one group stumble, the entire mission could be in jeopardy.
My team consists of staff from the German Aerospace Agency and the German SOFIA Institute from the University of Stuttgart. We have a huge responsibility: the care and operation of SOFIA’s 2.5-meter telescope and its subsystems. We will also support the German consortium team obtaining scientific data with the GREAT spectrometer (the German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies) when they arrive in Christchurch next week.
SOFIA’s deployment this year has us supporting four instruments plus the needs of the Focal Plane Imager (FPI) team. The FPI is an added asset to SOFIA that is used as a standard tracking camera for observations and also serves as a fast frame-rate imaging photometer. The four instruments are the GREAT spectrometer, the Faint Object infraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) camera/spectrometer, plus the First Light Infrared TEst CAMera (FLITECAM) and High Speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO), both of which were used for studies of Pluto’s atmosphere on June 28 and 29.
Our first task upon arrival in Christchurch was to set up a working area and do an inventory of all the necessary tools, and confirm that the electrostatic discharge bench was working properly to ensure we could repair any electronic components if necessary. This sounds simple enough, but we have to rely on the logistics companies that handled and shipped our equipment from Palmdale, cleared it through New Zealand Customs, and then delivered it here to the airfield. For our operations at Christchurch, the National Science Foundation’s U.S. Antarctic Program has generously afforded us workspace, and we were able to set-up shop to support SOFIA in a matter of days.
We have an excellent working relationship with the U.S. Antarctic Program. Aside from using their shops and facility, their IT staff helped us get up and running. Air New Zealand provides our airfield infrastructure (tow tugs, airstairs, etc.), MetService of Christchurch delivers our daily weather forecast, Anglo Pacific International provides logistics services for getting our equipment to Christchurch, and BOC Gas provides cryogens, which are used to cool our instruments, for the mission.
Many groups of people support our mission to observe the southern skies, and it takes the work of an international team to achieve success. We have completed four successful observing flights, including observing a challenging Pluto occultation, and look forward to even more as we continue to observe from Christchurch.
Many thanks to the telescope operators for helping us through these complicated observations. The instrument for tonight’s and tomorrow night’s flights is the Cornell University developed Faint Object infrared CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST), a dual-channel mid-infrared camera and spectrograph sensitive from 5 to 40 microns.. SOFIA flies above 99% of the water vapor in Earth’s atmosphere that blocks infrared radiation from reaching the ground. The super dry atmosphere over the southern ocean was exceptionally good for the duration of the flight, which enabled the team to get better results.
During the first science leg we observed V1309 Scorpii. At first this object was thought to be a “classical nova,” where a white dwarf star accretes material onto its surface from a companion star until the material ignites, causing a surface explosion. But it was later determined to be an explosion resulting from the merger of a binary star system, where the two stars spiral in toward one another until they finally collide. This is a very faint source that proved to be exceptionally challenging to get set up to observe. Once the observations were under way, however, the data looked to be acceptable. Luckily most of the effort was front-loaded, since soon after we began observing in earnest, the flight crew notified us that we could see the aurora outside. And it was just stunning, brighter and more active than anyone on the main deck had ever seen.
The following science leg included observations of Eta Carinae, a system of two stars that are five million times brighter than our Sun. Eta Carinae can only be seen from the Southern Hemisphere, and this observation was the focus of our guest investigator, Pat Morris, from the California Institute of Technology, who was on board to assist with data collection. These observations proved to be challenging. The goal was to observe the faint emission surrounding Eta Carinae that originated in an earlier period of mass loss. To see this emission, we had to very carefully position the observation field next to Eta Carinae itself, the brightest IR stellar source in the sky. Unfortunately, besides the difficult setup, there were some technical issues on this leg that resulted in some lost observing time. Nevertheless, the data obtained looked very good. We are well positioned to optimize our observations of Eta Carinae on upcoming flights.
The last object we observed this evening was Westerlund 1 – one of the most massive star clusters in the Milky Way Galaxy. These observations were straightforward and rewarded us with some beautiful images of the most densely populated field observed by the FORCAST team to date.
The Polynesians, including the Māori, have a long history of navigating the seas using the stars and other heavenly bodies to guide their voyaging canoes over long distances. SOFIA’s journey to fly in the clear air of the southern skies is in some ways akin to the long, sea journeys of the Māori people. To mark this connection, a tribal elder came to the Christchurch International Airport in New Zealand on June 15, 2015, to conduct a traditional ceremony emphasizing a safe and successful mission for SOFIA, her telescope, and all who use them.
Such ceremonies for a telescope and the land that an observatory sits on are a long-standing Polynesian tradition. SOFIA’s staff were happy to continue those traditions and participate in the traditional ceremony of, and pay respects to, the astronomical history of the Māori people.
Two days after SOFIA’s arrival in Christchurch, Māori elder Aroha H. Reriti-Crofts came to perform the traditional ceremony. Reriti-Crofts is from the Ngāi Tahu, the local Māori tribe in the Canterbury area. There are nearly 50,000 Ngāi Tahu tribal members; their ancestors came from somewhere in the central Pacific to New Zealand’s South Island more than 800 years ago in voyaging canoes, navigating by the stars.
Elder Reriti-Crofts is a very distinguished leader, having been a past national president of Te Ropu Wahine Māori Toko i te Ora (Māori Women’s Welfare League), a group that is dedicated to improving the spiritual, economic, educational, and social well-being of the Māori people.
A typical traditional ceremony is conducted at the telescope. However, SOFIA is unique in that the telescope and the airplane are considered one, and the telescope cannot be accessed from the ground without opening the large door on the aircraft’s left side. The door is usually kept closed to prevent the infrared telescope and its instruments from potential damage by the sun.
To work around the access issue, the crew gathered under SOFIA’s tail, near the telescope cavity, where elder Reriti-Crofts began the Ngai Tahu Māori ceremony.
“We gathered around Reriti-Crofts and she got out her Māori chant book and proceeded to chant. The chant lasted about 10 minutes, all in the Māori language,” said SOFIA telescope operator Jeff Cox. “At the conclusion of the ceremony Reriti-Crofts translated her chant, which emphasized that SOFIA and her crew take off and return safely on all missions. She also included our families in her blessing.”
The SOFIA deployment staff contributed personal funds as a gift for performing the ceremony, which will be used to help local Māori churches, schools, and children in need.
The sky and the stars are considered both sacred and useful by Polynesians. SOFIA’s flights of discovery study objects in the same celestial constellations the Māori’s ancestors used to find their way to New Zealand.
These pages will bring news and information about our science observations during our mission’s six-week deployment to observe the southern skies.
SOFIA arrived in Christchurch, New Zealand, on June 14 (New Zealand date) to begin the observatory’s second Southern Hemisphere deployment. The team’s first visit to Christchurch was in 2013, and that deployment was an outstanding success. The quality of the science data obtained from our previous flights out of Christchurch was excellent, and we’re expecting similar results again this year.
As you read this, our staff is conducting mission operations from the National Science Foundation’s U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) facility on Christchurch International Airport. Our mission is grateful to the National Science Foundation for making this facility available to us. The USAP facility is not in use during New Zealand’s winter, which is the reverse season to the Northern Hemisphere, so this is an ideal opportunity to make use of an otherwise idle base.
In 2013, SOFIA flew with one instrument, the German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies, GREAT. This year our scientific productivity will be greatly increased, as we will make observations with four instruments (Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope – FORCAST, First Light Infrared Test Experiment CAMera – FLITECAM, GREAT, and High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations – HIPO).
With a four-fold increase in science instrument capability, we will perform science observations on parts of the universe that are not accessible from the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, we will incorporate a special observation which we call a “target of opportunity,” to observe a Pluto occultation as it passes in front of a star. The Pluto observation has the potential to provide cross-mission science data to the New Horizons mission, further demonstrating SOFIA’s scientific productivity. SOFIA’s observation of Pluto will occur on June 29th, just a couple of weeks before the New Horizons’ spacecraft fly-by of Pluto on July 14th.
I am really excited about the science plan for this year’s Southern Hemisphere campaign, and I have no doubt that there will be obstacles and challenges during deployment operations. The science we obtain will be worth all of the long hours and the days away from home.
I look forward to everyone’s safe return home and to another SOFIA team success!