Kalmaegi – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 14, 2019 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Finds Displaced Power in Tropical Cyclone Kalmaegi

Tropical Cyclone Kalmaegi is still experiencing wind shear and those winds have continued to displace the strongest storms north of the cyclone’s center. NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed overhead and identified those strong storms using infrared light.

Suomi NPP image of Kalmaegi
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over Kalmaegi in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and the VIIRS instrument aboard captured this image of the storm on Nov. 14 at 1:12 a.m. EST (0512 UTC). VIIRS showed strong storms in a large area (yellow/green) north and northwest of the center, where cloud top temperatures were as cold as minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 Celsius). Credit: NASA/NRL

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided an infrared image of the storm. Infrared imagery reveals cloud top temperatures, and the higher the cloud top, the colder it is, and the stronger the storm. The VIIRS instrument aboard captured an infrared image of the storm on Nov. 14 at 1:12 a.m. EST (0512 UTC). VIIRS showed strong storms in a large area north and northwest of the center, where cloud top temperatures were as cold as minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 Celsius). Storms with cloud tops that cold have been found to generate heavy rainfall.

Wind shear seems to be preventing Kalmaegi from consolidating, as the storm is still a tropical depression. In general, wind shear is a measure of how the speed and direction of winds change with altitude. Tropical cyclones are like rotating cylinders of winds. Each level needs to be stacked on top each other vertically in order for the storm to maintain strength or intensify. Wind shear occurs when winds at different levels of the atmosphere push against the rotating cylinder of winds, weakening the rotation by pushing it apart at different levels.

At 10 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Kalmaegi was located near latitude 15.3 degrees north and longitude 125.8 degrees east. That is 286 nautical miles east of Manila, Philippines.  Maximum sustained winds are near 30 knots (34.5 mph/55.5 kph).

Kalmaegi is moving toward the west-northwest toward a landfall in Luzon, Philippines in the northern part of the country. Landfall is expected in northeastern Luzon on Nov. 16.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Fengshen – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 14, 2019 – NASA Infrared Data Shows Strength in Fengshen

Tropical Storm Fengshen’s cold cloud top temperatures revealed that the storm was maintaining strength as a strong tropical storm. Forecasters expect Fengshen will continue strengthening and reach typhoon status.

AIRS image of Fengshen
On Nov. 13 at 0259 UTC (Nov. 12 at 9:59 p.m. EST) NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed Tropical Storm Fengshen using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument. AIRS found coldest cloud top temperatures (purple) as cold as or colder than minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53 degrees Celsius) north and east of Imelda’s center. Credit: NASA JPL/Heidar Thrastarson

One of the ways NASA researches tropical cyclones is by using infrared data that provides temperature information. The AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a look at the temperatures in Fengshen which gave insight into the storm’s strength.

Cloud top temperatures provide information to forecasters about where the strongest storms are located within a tropical cyclone. Tropical cyclones do not always have uniform strength, and some sides are stronger than others. The stronger the storms, the higher they extend into the troposphere, and the colder the cloud temperatures.

AIRS near-infrared image of Fengshen
On Nov. 13 at 0259 UTC (Nov. 12 at 9:59 p.m. EST) NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed Tropical Storm Fengshen in near infrared light, using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument. Credit: NASA JPL/Heidar Thrastarson

On Nov. 13 at 0259 UTC (Nov. 12 at 9:59 p.m. EST) NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed Tropical Storm Fengshen in near infrared light, using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument. Credit: NASA JPL/Heidar ThrastarsonOn Nov. 13 at 0259 UTC (Nov. 12 at 9:59 p.m. EST) NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed the storm using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument. AIRS found coldest cloud top temperatures as cold as or colder than minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53 degrees Celsius) around Fengshen’s center.  NASA research has shown that cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms that have the capability to create heavy rain.

By early Nov. 14, forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted, “Infrared imagery revealed that deep convection has re-built over the low-level circulation center with improved deep convective banding [of thunderstorms].” Microwave imagery also revealed an eye developing.

On Nov. 14, the National Weather Service (NWS) in Tiyan, Guam stated a Typhoon Warning remains in effect for Agrihan, Pagan, and Alamagan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas. Damaging winds, including winds of 39 mph or more are expected after midnight with near typhoon conditions, shortly afterwards.

At 7 a.m. EDT (10 p.m. ChST, local time Guam/1200 UTC) on Nov. 14, the center of Tropical Storm Fengshen was located near latitude 17.5 degrees north and longitude 146.5 degrees east, moving west at 17 mph. That puts the center of Fengshen about 100 miles south-southeast of Agrihan, 65 miles southeast of Pagan and 45 miles east of Alamagan.

Maximum sustained winds remain near 65 mph. Fengshen is expected to intensify slowly tonight and Friday, and will likely be a typhoon by late Friday morning, after it has passed through the northern Marianas.

NWS said, “Fengshen is expected to gradually turn toward west-northwest later tonight [Nov. 14], passing very close to Alamagan Island early Friday morning [Nov. 15]. Fengshen will then turn slowly northwest on Friday as it moves away from the Marianas.”

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

The AIRS instrument is one of six instruments flying on board NASA’s Aqua satellite, launched on May 4, 2002.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov

For the latest on Tropical Storm Fengshen: https://www.weather.gov/gum/Cyclones

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center  

Kalmaegi – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 13, 2019 – NASA Finds Heavy Rainfall Along Central Philippine Coast from Tropical Depression Kalmaegi

Tropical Depression Kalmaegi continues moving west through the Philippine Sea and toward a landfall in the east central Philippines. NASA provided forecasters with an analysis of rainfall rates occurring in the strengthening tropical cyclone.

GPM image of Kalmaegi
The GPM core satellite passed over strengthening Tropical Depression Kalmaegi in the Philippine Sea, Northwestern Pacific Ocean on Nov. 13 at 6:16 a.m. EST (1116 UTC) and found the heaviest rainfall (pink) near the eastern coast of the Central Philippines, falling at a rate of over 40 mm (about 1.6 inch) per hour. Credit: NASA/JAXA/NRL

NASA has the unique capability of peering under the clouds in storms and measuring the rate at which rain is falling. Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM passed over Kalmaegi from its orbit in space and measured rainfall rates throughout the storm.

GPM passed over Kalmaegi in the Philippine Sea, Northwestern Pacific Ocean on Nov. 13 at 6:16 a.m. EST (1116 UTC) and found the heaviest rainfall near the eastern coast of the Central Philippines, falling at a rate of over 40 mm (about 1.6 inch) per hour. Forecasters incorporate the rainfall data into their forecasts. Animated enhanced infrared satellite imagery also shows that it is currently a disorganized system with deep and flaring convection pushed westward from the low-level circulation center which is where GPM found the heaviest rainfall.

At 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC) on Nov. 13, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC noted that Kalmaegi was located near latitude 13.5 degrees north and longitude 128.0 degrees east, about 439 nautical miles east of Manila, Philippines. The depression was moving to the west-northwest and had maximum sustained winds 30 knots (34.5 mph/55.5 kph).

Kalmaegi is moving west and is forecast to start weakening within 24 hours. The storm is then forecast to turn to the west-southwest while slowly weakening as it approaches the Gulf of Aden.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

Both the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA and NASA manage GPM.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Fengshen – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 13, 2019 – NASA Provides an Infrared Analysis of Tropical Storm Fengshen

Tropical Storm Fengshen continued to strengthen in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean as NASA’s Terra satellite passed overhead. Infrared imagery from an instrument aboard Terra revealed very high, powerful storms with very cold cloud top temperatures circling the center.

Terra image of Fengshen
On Nov. 13 at 7:30 a.m. EST (1230 UTC), the MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Terra satellite showed strongest thunderstorms with coldest cloud top temperatures (yellow) in a very large area from east to south of the center of circulation, where cloud top temperatures were as cold as or colder than minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 Celsius).
Credit: NASA/NRL

Tropical cyclones are made of up hundreds of thunderstorms, and infrared data can show where the strongest storms are located. They can do that because infrared data provides temperature information, and the strongest thunderstorms that reach highest into the atmosphere have the coldest cloud top temperatures.

On Nov. 13 at 7:30 a.m. EST (1230 UTC), the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Terra satellite used infrared light to analyze the strength of storms within the tropical cyclone. MODIS found those strongest storms in a very large area stretching from east to south of the center of circulation. In that quadrant cloud top temperatures were as cold as or colder than minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 Celsius). NASA research has found that cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms with the potential to generate heavy rainfall. Powerful thunderstorms also circled that area and the entire center of circulation and in a fragmented band extending north of center.

On Nov. 13 at 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC) or 1 a.m. CHST local time (Guam) a typhoon watch remains in effect for Agrihan, Pagan, and Alamagan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas.

At that time, the center of Tropical Storm Fengshen was located near latitude 17.0 degrees north and longitude 152.1 degrees east. That puts the center about 440 miles east-southeast of Agrihan. Fengshen is moving west at 20 mph. It is expected to make a gradual turn back toward the west-northwest with a slight decrease in forward speed over the next couple days. Maximum sustained winds remain at 50 mph. Fengshen is forecast to intensify through Friday possibly becoming a typhoon.

Hurricanes and typhoons are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA researches these storms to determine how they rapidly intensify, develop and behave. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Fengshen – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 12, 2019 – NASA Finds Heavy Rain in Tropical Storm Fengshen

The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite provided a look at the rainfall occurring within the newly developed Tropical Storm Fengshen.

GPM image of Fengshen
GPM passed over Tropical Storm Fengshen on Nov. 12 at 3:40 a.m. EDT (0840 UTC) and found heavy rainfall in several areas exceeding 1.6 inches (40 mm) per hour. Credit: NASA/NRL

Tropical Depression 26W formed in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean on Nov. 11 and strengthened into a tropical storm. Once it strengthened it was renamed Fengshen.

GPM passed over Fengshen on Nov. 12 at 3:40 a.m. EDT (0840 UTC) and  found heavy rainfall in several areas exceeding 1.6 inches (40 mm) per hour around a consolidating low-level center.

At 10 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Nov. 12 (1 a.m. CHST, Nov. 13) the National Weather Service in Tiyan, Guam said the center of Tropical Storm Fengshen was located near latitude 16.3 degrees north and longitude 158.6 degrees east. Fengshen is moving west-northwest at 16 mph and is expected to maintain this general course and speed through Thursday, then turn slightly to the northwest on Friday the 15th  where it is forecast to pass just north of Agrihan. Maximum sustained winds have increased to 40 mph and Fengshen is forecast to gradually intensify through Friday. Tropical storm force winds extend outward from the center up to 15 miles.

Hurricanes and typhoons are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA.

For updated forecasts, visit: https://www.weather.gov/gum/Cyclones

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Halong – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 08, 2019 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Finds a Weaker, Transitioning Tropical Storm Halong

Halong continued to weaken and is transitioning into an extra-tropical cyclone. NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided a visible image of the less organized storm.

Suomi NPP image of Halong
On Nov. 8, 2019, the VIIRS instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP provided a visible image of Tropical Storm Halong in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean as it continued to weaken. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) / NOAA

The Suomi NPP satellite passed over Halong in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean on Nov. 8. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided a visible image of the storm that showed it appeared elongated and had a ragged low-level circulation center.

At 10 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Nov. 8, the center of Halong was located near latitude 30.0 degrees north and longitude 160.2 degrees east. Tropical storm Halong’s center was located approximately 419 nautical miles northeast of Minami Tori Shima. Halong’s maximum sustained winds had dropped to 60 knots (69 mph/111 kph). Halong was moving quickly to the east-northeast at 24 knots.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC said that Halong will continue to track northeastward and gradually turn east-northeastward later on Nov. 8. The JTWC noted, “The environment will become more unfavorable with increasing vertical wind shear and cooling sea surface temperatures, leading to rapid weakening. Extra-tropical transition will begin later on Nov. 8 as begins to interact with the baroclinic zone. A baroclinic zone is a region in which a temperature gradient exists on a constant pressure surface.

Suomi NPP captures all three storms
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided a panoramic image of 3 tropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere. Cyclone Matmo (left) in the Bay of Bengal, Northern Indian Ocean, Typhoon Nakri (center) in the South China Sea, and Tropical Storm Halong (right) in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

When a storm becomes extra-tropical it means that a tropical cyclone has lost its “tropical” characteristics. NOAA’s National Hurricane Center defines “extra-tropical” as a transition that implies both poleward displacement (meaning it moves toward the north or south pole) of the cyclone and the conversion of the cyclone’s primary energy source from the release of latent heat of condensation to baroclinic (the temperature contrast between warm and cold air masses) processes. It is important to note that cyclones can become extratropical and still retain winds of hurricane or tropical storm force.

Hurricanes and typhoons are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Nakri – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 08, 2019 – NASA Sees Nakri Strengthen into a Typhoon

Former Tropical Storm Nakri strengthened into a Typhoon in the South China Sea on Nov. 8. NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over the region and found Nakri appeared more circular and more organized.

Suomi NPP image of Nakri
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over Typhoon Nakri on Nov. 8 and captured a visible image of the storm in the South China Sea. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

Visible imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite on Nov. 8 showed Nakri appeared more circular indicating it had intensified. The imagery also showed a large band on thunderstorms west of the center and wrapping into the low-level center. The center of the storm was still west of the main Philippine Islands, and north of Palawan. However, Kalayaan was still feeling the effects of the storm.

Kalayaan is a municipality on Pagasa Island in the province of Palawan, Philippines. Kalayaan is part of the Spratly Group of Islands, west of the largest island of Palawan. Nakri is known in the Philippines as Quiel.

Suomi NPP captures all three storms
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided a panoramic image of 3 tropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere. Cyclone Matmo (left) in the Bay of Bengal, Northern Indian Ocean, Typhoon Nakri (center) in the South China Sea, and Tropical Storm Halong (right) in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

The satellite imagery showing better organization complemented the increase in Nakri’s maximum sustained winds. Sustained winds on Nov. 7 were near 60 knots (69 mph/111 kph). On Nov. 8 at 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC), Nakri’s maximum sustained winds had increased to near 65 knots (75 mph/120 kph). The intensity is expected to remain relatively steady in the near-term. Nakri was located near latitude 12.7 degrees north and longitdue 116.1 degrees east, about 291 nautical miles west-southwest of Manila, Philippines. Nakri is moving slowly to the west.

Vietnam’s National Center for Hydro-Meteorological Forecasting issued a Typhoon Warning for the country as Nakri approaches.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Nakri to slowly track westward and make landfall in Vietnam late on Nov. 10 or early Nov. 11, to the south of Danang.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Matmo – Northern Indian Ocean (was South China Sea)

Nov. 08, 2019 – NASA Finds a Stronger Matmo Headed for Landfall

Matmo strengthened from a tropical storm to a storm with hurricane-force in the overnight hours of Nov. 7 into Nov. 8. NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Bay of Bengal, Northern Indian Ocean and found Matmo appeared more organized. Warnings are in effect in northeastern India and Bangladesh as Matmo approaches.

Suomi NPP image of Matmo
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over Cyclone Matmo on Nov. 8 and captured a visible image of the storm in the Bay of Bengal. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

Visible imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite on Nov. 8 showed Matmo appeared more circular indicating it may have intensified. The imagery also showed a large band on thunderstorms extending north from the center of circulation and over northeastern India and Bangladesh.

The satellite imagery showing better organization complemented the increase in Matmo’s maximum sustained winds. Sustained winds on Nov. 7 were near 55 knots (63 mph/102 kph). On Nov. 8 at 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC), Matmo’s maximum sustained winds had increased to near 85 knots (98 mph/157 kph). Matmo was located near latitude 19.1 degrees north and longitude 88.1 degrees east, about 235 nautical miles south of Kolkata, India. Matmo is moving to the north.

Suomi NPP captures all three storms
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided a panoramic image of 3 tropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere. Cyclone Matmo (left) in the Bay of Bengal, Northern Indian Ocean, Typhoon Nakri (center) in the South China Sea, and Tropical Storm Halong (right) in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

The India Meteorological Service (IMS) has issued a cyclone watch for the Odisha-West Bengal coasts. Odisha is a state in India. Odisha has 301 miles (485 kilometers) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal from Balasore to Ganjam. West Bengal is on the eastern bottleneck of India. It extends from the Himalayas (in the north) to the Bay of Bengal in the south. IMS said, “Matmo is expected to cross the West Bengal – Bangladesh Coasts between Sagar Islands (West Bengal) and Khepupara (Bangladesh), across Sunderban delta by midnight of November 9 [local time].”

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Matmo to make landfall near the border of India and Bangladesh on Saturday, Nov. 9 and continue moving inland.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Halong – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 07, 2019 – NASA Satellite Imagery Finds Typhoon Halong Resembles a Boxing Glove

Typhoon Halong has packed quite a punch and imagery from NASA’s Terra satellite found that the storm resembled a boxing glove.

Aqua image of Halong
On Nov. 7, the MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Terra satellite took this image of Typhoon Halong and it resembled a boxing glove from space. Credit: NASA Worldview

On Nov. 7, NASA’s Terra satellite passed over the northwestern Pacific Ocean and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard captured a visible image of Halong. The MODIS image showed powerful thunderstorms circling the center of circulation and a band of thunderstorms northeast of center. Combined, the storm looked like a boxing glove from space with the “thumb” as the band of storms that curved to the east of the center. Satellite imagery using microwaves revealed that there is an eye under that large area of thunderstorms circling the center.

At 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC) on Nov. 7, the center of Typhoon Halong was located near latitude 24.8 degrees north and longitude 152.2 degrees east. That puts the center about 110 nautical miles west of Minami Tori Shima, Japan. Maximum sustained winds were near 90 knots (104 mph/167 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC noted, “Halong will accelerate poleward [north] while gradually turning northeastward to east-northeastward. The environment will become more unfavorable with increasing vertical wind shear and cooling sea surface temperatures.” That means the storm will experience a weakening trend and after a day, the storm is expected to start transitioning into an extra-tropical storm.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Matmo – Northern Indian Ocean (was South China Sea)

Nov. 07, 2019 – NASA Observes Tropical Storm Matmo in North Central Bay of Bengal

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Bay of Bengal, Northern Indian Ocean and found that Tropical Storm Matmo was positioned in the center of that body of water.

Suomi NPP image of Matmo
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over Tropical Storm Matmo on Nov. 7 and captured a visible image of the storm in the Bay of Bengal. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

Visible imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite on Nov. 7 showed Matmo appeared somewhat elongated from north to south, because of a large band on thunderstorms extending north from the center of circulation.

On Nov. 7 at 4 a.m. EST (0900 UTC), Matmo had maximum sustained winds near 55 knots (63 mph/102 kph). Matmo was located near latitude 15.0 degrees north and longitude 88.7 degrees east, about 353 nautical miles east-southeast of Visakhapatnam, India. Matmo is moving to the northwest.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Matmo will move northwest, then later, north. The storm will strengthen to 85 knots, but will weaken rapidly to dissipate on approach to the north coast of the Bay of Bengal. Threatened landmasses include India and Bangladesh.

The India Meteorological Service has issued a cyclone watch for the Odisha-West Bengal coasts. Odisha is a state in India. Odisha has 301 miles (485 kilometers) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal from Balasore to Ganjam. West Bengal is on the eastern bottleneck of India. It extends from the Himalayas (in the north) to the Bay of Bengal in the south.

Matmo is forecast to make landfall just east of Kolkata on Nov. 9. Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center