Krosa – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 16, 2019 – Satellite View of Tropical Storm Krosa Transition in Sea of Japan

Tropical Storm Krosa continued to erode after it moved into the Sea of Japan and satellite data showed it as a ragged and shapeless storm on August 16, 2019.

NOAA-20 image of Krosa
NOAA’s NOAA-20 satellite provided a look at Tropical Storm Krosa as it was becoming extra-tropical in the Sea of Japan on Aug 16 at 12:12 a.m. EDT (0412 UTC). Credit: NOAA/NRL

The center of Tropical Storm Krosa’s circulation was difficult to pinpoint in the Aug. 16 visible image from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the NOAA-20 satellite. NOAA-20 passed over the Sea of Japan at 12:12 a.m. EDT (0412 UTC) and the VIIRS instrument provided a view of the shapeless storm. The bulk of clouds associated with the storm was north of the center.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC issued their final bulletin on Krosa at 0300 UTC on Aug. 16 (11 p.m. EDT on Aug. 15). At that time Tropical Storm Krosa was located near 39.4 degrees north latitude and 134.9 east longitude, about 296 miles west-southwest of Misawa, Japan. Krosa was moving to the north-northeast and had maximum sustained winds 35 knots (40 mph).

During this time Krosa was becoming extra-tropical. That means that a tropical cyclone has lost its “tropical” characteristics. The National Hurricane Center defines “extra-tropical” as a transition that implies both poleward displacement (meaning it moves toward the north or south pole) of the cyclone and the conversion of the cyclone’s primary energy source from the release of latent heat of condensation to baroclinic (the temperature contrast between warm and cold air masses) processes. It is important to note that cyclones can become extratropical and retain winds of hurricane or tropical storm force.

Krosa is veering northeast and will become fully extra-tropical during the day on Aug. 16.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Krosa – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 15, 2019 – NASA Pinpointed Tropical Storm Krosa’s Strength Before Japan Landfall

NASA’s Aqua satellite provided forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center with infrared data and cloud top temperature information for Tropical Storm Krosa as it was making landfall in southern Japan.

AIRS image of Krosa
On Aug. 15, at 12:05 a.m. EDT (0405 UTC) the AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed cloud top temperatures of Tropical Storm Krosa in infrared light. AIRS found coldest cloud top temperatures (purple) of strongest thunderstorms were as cold as or colder than minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53 degrees Celsius) south of the center. Credit: NASA JPL/Heidar Thrastarson

Cloud top temperatures provide information to forecasters about where the strongest storms are located within a tropical cyclone. The stronger the storms, the higher they extend into the troposphere, and they have the colder cloud temperatures. NASA’s Aqua satellite took Tropical Storm Krosa’s cloud top temperatures to get that information and found the strongest storms south of the storm’s center.

NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed the storm on Aug. 15, at 12:05 a.m. EDT (0405 UTC) using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument. AIRS found coldest cloud top temperatures as cold as or colder than minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53 degrees Celsius) south of the center and over the waters of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms that have the capability to create heavy rain.

Over the next 10 hours, the center of Krosa crossed southern Japan and emerged into the Sea of Japan. By 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), satellite imagery showed the system continued to erode and unravel as it exited into the Sea of Japan.

At 11 a.m. EDT (01500 UTC) Tropical Storm Krosa was centered near 25.9 degrees north latitude and 133.1 degrees east longitude. That’s about 108 miles north-northeast of Iwakuni, Japan. It was moving to the northeast and had maximum sustained winds 40 knots (46 mph/74 kph).

Krosa is moving to the northeast through the Sea of Japan. The storm is forecast to become extra-tropical within 24 hours.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center  

Krosa – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 14, 2019 – NASA Follows Tropical Storm Krosa’s Approach to Landfall in Southern Japan

Infrared imagery from NASA’s Aqua satellite shows that Tropical Storm Krosa contains powerful thunderstorms with heavy rain capabilities as it moves toward landfall in southern Japan.  Krosa’s center is expected to make landfall in the western part of Shikoku Island, Japan.

Aqua image of Krosa
On Aug. 14 at 12:05 a.m. EDT (0505 UTC), NASA’s Aqua satellite found strongest thunderstorms (yellow) in Krosa in a small area southwest of the center where cloud top temperatures were as cold as minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 Celsius). That area was surrounded by a much larger area (red) with powerful storms as cold as minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 56.6 Celsius). Credit: NASA/NRL

On Aug. 14, 2019, the Japan Meteorological Agency has issued warnings for Kyushu, Shikoku and southeastern portions of Honshu. Because Krosa is such a large storm, it is expected to affect all of the big islands of Japan.

At 12:05 a.m. EDT (0505 UTC), the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite used infrared light to examine the storm. Infrared data provides temperature information, and the strongest thunderstorms that reach high into the atmosphere have the coldest cloud top temperatures.

Aqua’s MODIS found strongest thunderstorms in a small area southwest of the center where cloud top temperatures were as cold as minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 Celsius). That area was surrounded by a much larger area with powerful storms as cold as minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 56.6 Celsius). Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms with the potential to generate heavy rainfall.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC noted at 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) that Krosa had maximum sustained winds near 45 knots (52 mph/83 kph). Krosa was centered near 31.0 degrees north latitude and 132.7 degrees east longitude. Tropical storm Krosa was located approximately 237 nautical miles south of Iwakuni, Japan. Krosa has tracked north-northwestward.

After the storm makes landfall in Kyushu, Japan, it is forecast to pass to the south of the Korean peninsula, and turn to the northeast as it becomes extra-tropical over the Sea of Japan.

For updated warnings from the Japan Meteorological Agency, visit: https://www.jma.go.jp/en/typh/

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Krosa – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 13, 2019 – NASA Sees Wide Center in Tropical Storm Krosa

NASA’s Aqua satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and captured a good shot of the wide, ragged center of circulation in Tropical Storm Krosa.

Aqua image of Krosa
On Aug. 13, 2019, the MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a visible image of Tropical Storm Krosa in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Credit: NASA/NRL

On Aug. 13 at 12:20 a.m. EDT (0420 UTC), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a visible image of Krosa that showed a large center of circulation, surrounded by fragmented bands of thunderstorms.

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), the center of Krosa was located near latitude 28.2 degrees north and longitude 133.9 degrees east. Krosa was about 397 nautical miles south-southeast of Iwakuni, Japan. Krosa was moving to the west-northwest and had maximum sustained winds near 45 knots (52 mph/83 kph).

The Japan Meteorological Agency has issued warnings for storm surge, heavy rains and tropical storm-force winds along coastal areas in southeastern Japan.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center said that Krosa is expected to intensify to 50 knots (58 mph/92 kph) as it approaches landfall in southwestern Japan on August 14.

For updated warnings from the Japan Meteorological Agency, visit: https://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Henriette – Eastern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 13, 2019 – NASA Finds Henriette Fading

Infrared imagery from NASA’s Terra satellite found just a few scattered areas of cold clouds in the Eastern Pacific Ocean’s Tropical Depression Henriette on August 13.

Terra image of Henrietta
On August 13 at 1:30 a.m. EDT (0530 UTC), the MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Terra satellite showed strongest thunderstorms in Tropical Depression Henriette were fragmented. Coldest cloud top temperatures were as cold as minus 50 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 45.5 Celsius). Credit: NASA/NRL

NASA’s Terra satellite uses infrared light to analyze the strength of storms by providing temperature information about the system’s clouds. The strongest thunderstorms that reach high into the atmosphere have the coldest cloud top temperatures.

On August 13 at 1:30 a.m. EDT (0530 UTC), the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Terra satellite gathered infrared data on Henriette.

MODIS found just a few scattered areas of cold clouds in thunderstorms in the depression. Those thunderstorms had cloud top temperatures as cold as minus 50 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 45.5 Celsius).

NOAA’s National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that Henriette was weakening quickly. At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), the center of Tropical Depression Henriette was located near latitude 21.1 degrees north and longitude 115.2 degrees west. That’s about 360 miles (580 km) west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico. The depression is moving toward the west-northwest near 13 mph (20 km/h) and this general motion should continue through tonight.

Maximum sustained winds have decreased to near 30 mph (45 kph) with higher gusts.

The estimated minimum central pressure is 1008 mb (29.77 inches).

NHC said, “Additional weakening is expected during the next 24 hours, and the depression is forecast to degenerate into a remnant low later today [Aug. 13, 2019].”

For updated forecasts, visit: https://www.nhc.noaa.gov

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Krosa – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 12, 2019 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Views Massive Tropical Storm Krosa

Tropical Storm Krosa is a large tropical cyclone. When NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean, it captured a visible image of the massive storm.

Suomi NPP image of Krosa
On Aug. 12, 2019, NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and captured a visible image of Krosa that showed a very large tropical storm. Credit: NASA/NRL

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided a visible image of Tropical Storm Krosa on Aug. 12 at 12:30 a.m. EDT (0430 UTC). The VIIRS image showed that the storm appeared to be almost as wide as the length of the Philippines. For comparison, the Philippines’ length is 1,851 km (1,150 miles) from south-southeast to north-northwest. Thunderstorms wrapped around the low-level center and a band of fragmented thunderstorms stretched far to the south of the center of circulation.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted in their discussion on Aug. 12, “Animated enhanced infrared satellite imagery shows a very expansive system deep but widely fragmented convective bands spiraling in mostly from the southwest into a large, ragged and fully exposed low-level circulation.”

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Monday, August 12, 2019, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center found Krosa’s maximum sustained winds near 55 knots (63 mph/102 kph). Krosa’s large eye was centered near 26.1 degrees north latitude and 136.7 degrees east longitude. That’s about 236 nautical miles west-northwest of Iwo To island, Japan. Krosa was moving to the northwest.

Krosa is expected to make landfall over western Shikoku, Japan in two and a half days, on August 15. Shikoku is the smallest of Japan’s major islands.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Henriette – Eastern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 12, 2019 – NASA Measures Rain Rate in Tiny Tropical Storm Henriette

Tiny Tropical Storm Henriette is the newest addition to the tropical cyclone line-up in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The storm developed early on Aug. 12 and soon after the GPM satellite passed overhead and found heavy rain happening around its center.

GPM image of Henrietta
The GPM core satellite passed over Tropical Storm Henriette at 2:06 a.m. EDT (0606 UTC) on August 12, 2019. GPM found the heaviest rainfall (orange) around Henriette’s center of circulation falling at a rate of 25 mm (about 1 inch) per hour. Credit: NASA/JAXA/NRL

The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite passed over Tropical Storm Henriette at 2:06 a.m. EDT (0606 UTC) on August 12, 2019. GPM found the heaviest rainfall was around the center of circulation falling at a rate of 25 mm (about 1 inch) per hour, over open waters of the Eastern Pacific. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA.

NOAA’s National Hurricane Center (NHC) said,  at 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Henriette was located near latitude 19.7 degrees north and longitude 112.2 degrees west. The storm is far enough away from land that there are no coastal warnings in effect. It is about 265 miles (430 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico.

Henriette is moving toward the west-northwest near 12 mph (19 kph) and this general motion is expected to continue for the next couple of days. Maximum sustained winds are near 40 mph (65 kph) with higher gusts. Tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 35 miles (55 km) from the center. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1005 millibars.

Henriette is expected to begin weakening by Tuesday, Aug. 13 and degenerate into a remnant low pressure area by Tuesday night.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Lekima – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 12, 2019 – NASA Finds Deadly Lekima’s Remnants Over China

NASA’s Terra satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and captured a visible picture of the remnant clouds of deadly former Typhoon Lekima over eastern China.

Terra image of Lekima
On Aug. 12, 2019, the MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite provided a visible image of former Typhoon Lekima in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

On Aug. 12, 2019, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite provided a visible image of Lekima’s remnant clouds. The remnants blanketed eastern China and the Korean Peninsula, also extending over part of the Yellow Sea.

Typhoon Lekima made landfall early on Aug. 10 in the Zhejiang province. At landfall, Lekima’s winds were gusting up to 185 kph (115 mph). Typhoon Lekima made another landfall in coastal regions of Huangdao district, Qingdao, Shandong around 8:50 p.m. local time on August 11. Lekima caused billions of dollars in damage, triggered travel delays and caused fatalities. Reuters reported that 44 people perished from Typhoon Lekima’s landfall in China.

On Aug. 12, China’s National Meteorological Center (NMC) released a blue warning for a typhoon at 6:00 a.m. local time. NMC noted, “Lekima [will] dwell in neighboring regions of northern Shandong Peninsula and move north by east direction with a dwindling intensity.”

The NMC forecast from August 12 to 13 noted that the areas including northern Shandong, northeastern Henan, eastern Tianjin, central-southern Liaoning, and eastern Jilin will be exposed to moderate and heavy rain. NMC’s forecast noted, “Heavy downpours (100-200 mm/3.9 to 7.8 inches) will pummel northeastern Hebei, and southwestern Liaoning.”

For updated forecasts and warnings from NMC, visit: http://www.cma.gov.cn/en2014/

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Lekima – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 09, 2019 – NASA Gives Typhoon Lekima a Twice-Over with the Aqua Satellite

NASA’s Aqua satellite provided infrared and visible views of Typhoon Lekima as it was approaching landfall in China. China has posted Typhoon and Heavy Rain Warnings for Lekima.

AIRS image of Lekima
On Aug. 9 at 12:41 a.m. EDT (441 UTC) the AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed Lekima’s cloud top temperatures in infrared light. AIRS found coldest cloud top temperatures (purple) of strongest thunderstorms were as cold as or colder than minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53 degrees Celsius) in the thick band of thunderstorms around the eye and in bands north and southeast of the center. Credit: NASA JPL/Heidar Thrastarson

On Aug. 9 at 12:41 a.m. EDT (441 UTC) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed Lekima’s cloud top temperatures in infrared light. The stronger the storms, the higher they extend into the troposphere, and they have the colder cloud temperatures. AIRS found coldest cloud top temperatures as cold as or colder than minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53 degrees Celsius) around the eye and in thick bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the center from the north and southeast. Storms with cloud tops that cold have been found to generate heavy rainfall.

On Aug 9 at 12:45 a.m. EDT (0445 UTC), the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that also flies aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite provided visible views of powerful Typhoon Lekima affecting China. The satellite showed a clear, small, rounded eye surrounded by a thick, powerful ring of thunderstorms and a large band of thunderstorms extending north of the center.

Terra image of Lekima
On Aug 9 at 12:45 a.m. EDT (0445 UTC), the MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Aqua revealed powerful Typhoon Lekima affecting China. The satellite showed a clear eye surrounded by a thick, powerful ring of thunderstorms and a large band of thunderstorms extending north of the center. Credit: NASA/NRL

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) the center of Typhoon Lekima was located near latitude 27.8 degrees north latitude and longitude 121.8 degrees east. Lekima is moving toward the north-northeast. Maximum sustained winds are near 95 knots (109 mph/176 kph). Lekima is a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.

China’s National Meteorological Center (NMC) issued a Red Warning for the Typhoon at 10:00 a.m. local times on August 9 and an Orange Warning for rainstorm.

NMC said, “Typhoon Lekima is forecast to move northwest direction at the speed of 15-20 kph and moves towards coastal regions of Zhejiang and make landfall in coastal regions from Xiangshan to Cangnan of Zhejiang from the dawn to the daytime of August 10. From August 9 to 10, Bashi Channel, Taiwan Strait, coastal sea areas of Taiwan, East China Sea, Hangzhou Bay, Yangtze River Estuary, coastal regions of Zhejiang, Shanghai and southern Jiangsu, northern Taiwan Island, southern Huanghuai Sea, central-northern Fujian will be exposed to scale 7-9 gale.

Heavy rain to rainstorm will pummel Zhejiang, northern Fujian, eastern and southern Jiangsu, Shanghai, southeastern Anhui, and Taiwan Island. Heavy downpour will pound central-eastern Zhejiang, southern Shanghai, and Taiwan Island. Torrential downpour (250-320mm) will slam eastern Zhejiang and central Taiwan Island. (Aug. 9).”

The Orange Warning says, “It is predicted that from August 9 to 10, heavy rain to rainstorm will grip Zhejiang, northern Fujian, eastern and southern Jiangsu, Shanghai, southeastern Anhui, Taiwan Island, Beijing, central-southern Hebei, central Henan, southwestern and northern Chongqing, southern Sichuan, central-northern Yunnan, and eastern Heilongjiang. Heavy downpour will pound central-eastern Zhejiang, southern Shanghai, and Taiwan Island. Torrential downpour (250-320mm) will slam eastern Zhejiang and central Taiwan Island.”

For updated forecasts from NMC, visit: http://www.cma.gov.cn/en2014/weather/Warnings/

By Rob Gutro
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Krosa – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 09, 2019 – NASA’s Aqua Satellite Finds a Large Ragged Eye in Typhoon Krosa

Typhoon Krosa is a large storm moving through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and infrared imagery from NASA’s Aqua satellite revealed that the large typhoon also has a large eye.

AIRS image of Krosa
On Aug. 7 at 11 p.m. EDT (0359 UTC) the AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed cloud top temperatures of Typhoon Krosa in infrared light. AIRS found coldest cloud top temperatures (purple) of strongest thunderstorms were as cold as or colder than minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53 degrees Celsius). Krosa had a 40 nautical-mile-wide eye. Credit: NASA JPL/Heidar Thrastarson

Cloud top temperatures provide information to forecasters about where the strongest storms are located within a tropical cyclone. NASA’s Aqua satellite took Typhoon Krosa’s cloud top temperatures to get that information. NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed the storm on Aug. 7 at 11 p.m. EDT (0359 UTC) using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument. The stronger the storms, the higher they extend into the troposphere, and they have the colder cloud temperatures. AIRS found coldest cloud top temperatures as cold as or colder than minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53 degrees Celsius) around the eye and in large bands south and east of the center. Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms that have the capability to create heavy rain.

Early on Aug. 9, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that infrared data revealed that Krosa has an eye that is 40 nautical-miles wide.

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) on Aug. 9, the center of Typhoon Krosa was located near latitude 22.0 degrees north and longitude 141.2 degrees east. That puts the center of Krosa about 168 nautical miles south of Iwo To island, Japan. Krosa was slowly crawling toward the east. Maximum sustained winds were near 85 knots (98 mph/157 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects that Krosa will turn northwest, and pass to the southwest of Iwo To island, Japan. It is then to continue tracking northwest and pass east of Minami Daito Jima, Kadena and Amami Oshima, on its way to the four main islands of Japan. Krosa is also expected to weaken over the next five days.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center