Josephine – Atlantic Ocean

Aug. 14, 2020 – NASA Finds Wind Shear Affecting Tropical Storm Josephine

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with a visible image of Tropical Storm Josephine east of the Lesser Antilles island chain. Suomi NPP revealed that Josephine was being affected by wind shear.

Suomi NPP Image of Josephine
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with a visible image of Tropical Storm Josephine in the Atlantic Ocean. The imagery shows a slightly elongated storm east of the Lesser Antilles island chain. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

The Lesser Antilles is a group of islands that form the boundary of the western Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea (to the west). They are a long, partly volcanic island arc stretching between the Greater Antilles to the north-west and South America.

On Aug. 13, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP revealed southwesterly wind shear was pushing the bulk of clouds and precipitation to the northeast of the center, giving the storm an elongated appearance.

Vertical wind shear, that is, winds outside of a tropical cyclone at different heights in the atmosphere (the troposphere), pushes against a tropical cyclone and tears it apart.

On Aug. 14, National Hurricane Center hurricane forecaster Jack Beven noted that wind shear was continuing. Beven said, “Morning visible satellite imagery indicates that the center of Josephine is located to the south or southwest of the strongest area of convection, likely due to the onset of southwesterly vertical wind shear.”

Tropical Storm Josephine on Aug. 14

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Aug. 14, the center of Tropical Storm Josephine was located near latitude 16.1 degrees north and longitude 54.7 degrees west. The storm was centered 575 miles (920 km) east-southeast of the southern Leeward Islands.

Josephine is moving toward the west-northwest near 16 mph (26 kph), and this general motion is expected to continue for the next couple of days. The estimated minimum central pressure was 1006 millibars. Maximum sustained winds were near 40 mph (65 km/h) with higher gusts. Some strengthening is possible during the next 24 hours. After that time, Josephine is expected to encounter upper-level winds that will not be conducive for strengthening.

Josephine is expected to turn toward the northwest late this weekend or early next week. On the forecast track, the center of Josephine is expected to pass to the northeast of the Leeward Islands over the weekend.

 NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For updated forecasts. visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

10E – Eastern Pacific Ocean – 2020

Aug. 14, 2020 – NASA Finds Wind Shear Making Tropical Depression 10E Struggle

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with a visible image of a struggling Tropical Depression 10E in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Wind shear is preventing the storm from intensifying into a tropical storm.

Suomi NPP image of TD10
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with a visible image of Tropical Depression 10E in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The imagery showed northeasterly wind shear had exposed the center of circulation and pushed the bulk of clouds and precipitation to the southwest of the center. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

On Aug. 13, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP revealed northeasterly wind shear had exposed the center of circulation and pushed the bulk of clouds and precipitation to the southwest of the center. The depression has maintained a small ragged band of convection in its southwest quadrant.

Vertical wind shear, that is, winds outside of a tropical cyclone at different heights in the atmosphere (the troposphere), pushes against a tropical cyclone and tears it apart.

National Hurricane Center forecaster David Zelinsky noted, “Strong northeasterly shear should continue to limit the development potential of the cyclone, but upper-level winds could become less hostile in a few days.”

Tropical Depression 10E on Aug. 14

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Aug. 14, the center of Tropical Depression 10E was located near latitude 13.6 degrees north and longitude 131.9 degrees west. 10E is centered about 1,575 miles (2,535 km) west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico.

The depression is moving toward the west-southwest near 6 mph (9 kph). A slow drift toward the west-southwest is expected today, followed by a turn toward the northwest over the weekend. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1004 millibars. Maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 kph) with higher gusts. Little change in strength is forecast during the next few days.

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For updated forecasts. visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Josephine – Atlantic Ocean

Aug. 13, 2020 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Nighttime Imagery Reveals Development of Tropical Storm Josephine

The tenth named tropical cyclone of the Atlantic Ocean hurricane season was named today, Aug. 13, after NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided a nighttime image of the storm.

Suomi NPP image of Josephine
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed the North Atlantic Ocean during the early morning hours of Aug. 13 and captured a nighttime image of developing Tropical Storm Josephine. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

Tropical Storm Josephine developed from Tropical Depression 11. Over the last two days, Tropical Depression 11 has been moving through the Central Atlantic Ocean and was slow to organize. Satellite imagery indicated the depression became more organized and reached tropical storm strength on Aug. 13.

Another Record-Breaker for the Season

Josephine is the earliest tenth tropical storm of record in the Atlantic, with the next earliest tenth storm being Tropical Storm Jose on August 22, 2005.

NASA’s Night-Time View  

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided a nighttime image of Josephine on Aug. 13 at 2 a.m. EDT (0500 UTC). The imagery showed that Josephine had strong thunderstorms surrounding its center of circulation and fragmented thunderstorms wrapping into the low-level center from the northern quadrant. The image was created using the NASA Worldview application.

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted, “Satellite imagery shows that the convective pattern associated with Josephine has become a little better organized since the last advisory (at 5 a.m. EDT), with a ragged central convective feature and a weak band in the northern semicircle.”

Josephine’s Formation Advisory

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Aug. 13, NHC announced the formation of Tropical Storm Josephine. At that time, the center was located near latitude 13.7 degrees north and longitude 49.2 degrees west. Josephine was located about 975 miles (1,565 km) east-southeast of the Northern Leeward Islands.

Josephine was moving toward the west-northwest near 15 mph (24 kph), and this general motion is expected to continue for the next few days followed by a turn toward the northwest late this weekend or early next week. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1005 millibars.

Recent satellite wind data indicate that maximum sustained winds have increased to near 45 mph (75 kph) with higher gusts.  Some additional strengthening is forecast during the next 48 hours.

NHC cautions that interests in the Leeward Islands should monitor the progress of this system.

About NASA’s EOSDIS Worldview

NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.”

NASA Researches Earth from Space

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Elida – Eastern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 13, 2020 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Nighttime Imagery Helps Confirm Elida Now Post-Tropical

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided a night-time image of Elida in the Eastern Pacific Ocean that helped confirm the storm had weakened to a post-tropical cyclone.

Suomi nPP image of Elida
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed the Eastern Pacific Ocean overnight on Aug. 12 at 10 p.m. PDT (Aug. 13 at 0500 UTC) and captured a night-time image of Post-Tropical Cyclone Elida. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

What is a Post-tropical Cyclone?

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) defines a post-tropical cyclone as a former tropical cyclone. This generic term describes a cyclone that no longer possesses sufficient tropical characteristics to be considered a tropical cyclone. Post-tropical cyclones can continue carrying heavy rains and high winds. Note that former tropical cyclones that have become fully extratropical… as well as remnant low pressure areas… are two classes of post-tropical cyclones.

NASA’s Night-Time View of Elida’s Transition

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided a night-time image of Elida on Aug. 12 at 10 p.m. PDT (Aug. 13 at 0500 UTC). The imagery showed that Elida was still devoid of strong thunderstorms. The image was created using the NASA Worldview application.

Two hours earlier, NOAA’s National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted, “Elida has been devoid of deep convection for more than 12 hours, and since it is over sea surface temperatures of 22 to 23 degrees Celsius (71.6 to 73.4 degrees Fahrenheit), it is unlikely that organized deep convection will return.  As a result, the system has become a post-tropical cyclone, and this will be the last NHC advisory on Elida.”

Tropical cyclones require warm sea surface temperatures of at least 26.6 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) to maintain strength and continue building the thunderstorms that make up a tropical cyclone.

Elida’s Last Advisory

At 11 p.m. EDT on Aug. 12 (0300 UTC on Aug. 13), the National Hurricane Center (NHC) issued the final advisory on Elida. At that time, it was located near latitude 24.4 degrees north and longitude 120.2 degrees west. That is about 395 miles (635 km) southwest of Punta Eugenia, Mexico.

The post-tropical cyclone is moving toward the northwest near 9 mph (15 kph).  A northwestward or north-northwestward motion at a slower forward speed is expected through Thursday. Maximum sustained winds have decreased to near 40 mph (65 kph) with higher gusts. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1004 millibars.

Additional weakening is expected during the next day or so, and the remnant low is forecast to dissipate early Friday.

About NASA’s EOSDIS Worldview

NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.”

NASA Researches Earth from Space

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

06W – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 12, 2020 – NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP Satellite Finds a Stubborn Tropical Depression 06W

Tropical Depression 06W has been around for days, and continues to hold together as it moves in a westerly direction toward Taiwan in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite captured a visible image of the storm.

Suomi NPP image of 06W
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with a visible image of Tropical Depression 06W moving through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean on Aug. 12. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

On Aug. 12, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP revealed a partially exposed low-level circulation with building thunderstorms over the western quadrant of Tropical Depression 06W. Satellite imagery also showed a weakly defined, broad center. The image was created by NASA Worldview website at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Aug. 12, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted Tropical Depression 06W (TD06W) was centered near latitude 5.0 degrees north and longitude 133.4 degrees east, approximately 349 nautical miles east-southeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa Island, Japan. 06W was moving to the west-southwest. Maximum sustained winds remained near 25 knots (29 mph/46 kph).

TD06W is expected to maintain intensity for another day and a half, when it will then weaken.

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Elida – Eastern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 12, 2020 – NASA Finds Hurricane Elida’s Eye Covered

NASA’s Aqua satellite obtained visible imagery of Hurricane Elida in the Eastern Pacific as it continued to weaken. Imagery revealed that Elida’s eye had become covered as the storm embarks on a weakening trend over cooler waters.

Aqua image of Elida
NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a visible image to forecasters of Hurricane Elida on Aug. 11 that showed the eye had become covered by high clouds and the storm appeared more elongated. Image Courtesy: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS).

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Hurricane Elida on Aug. 11 at 4:30 p.m. EDT and the eye had become obscured by high clouds. The image also revealed that the storm looked more elongated, another sign a storm is weakening. Satellite imagery was created using NASA’s Worldview product at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

Elida has moved into cooler waters, causing the storm to weaken. The hurricane have moved over waters of 23 to 24 degrees Celsius (73.4 to 75.2 degrees Fahrenheit). A hurricane needs sea surface temperatures of at least 26.6 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) to maintain intensity.

Elida’s Status on Aug. 12

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) on Aug. 12, the center of Hurricane Elida was located near latitude 23.0 degrees north and longitude 117.7 degrees west. That’s about 495 miles (800 km) west of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico. Elida is moving toward the west-northwest near 13 mph (20 kph). A turn to the northwest along with some decrease in forward speed is expected to occur tonight. Maximum sustained winds are near 75 mph (120 kph) with higher gusts. The estimated minimum central pressure is 988 millibars.

Satellite imagery on Aug. 12 show that Elida’s remaining deep convection, located northeast of the center of circulation, continues to shrink in coverage and wane in intensity.

Elida Still Causing Ocean Swells

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) said, “Swells generated by Elida are expected to affect portions of the coast of west-central Mexico and the southern Baja California peninsula during the next day or two.  These swells are likely to cause life-threatening surf and rip current conditions.”

Elida’s Forecast Calls for Quick Demise

NHC noted that Elida is expected to weaken quickly. “Rapid weakening is expected during the next day or so as Elida moves over colder water, and the cyclone is forecast to weaken to a tropical storm today and degenerate to a remnant low [pressure area] on Thursday.”

About NASA’s Worldview and Aqua Satellite

NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.”

NASA’s Aqua satellite is one in a fleet of NASA satellites that provide data for hurricane research.

Tropical cyclones/hurricanes are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Mekkhala – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 11, 2020 – NASA Finds Mekkhala Coming Apart After Landfall in Southeastern China

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with a visible image of former Typhoon Mekkhala shortly after it made landfall in southeastern China. Wind shear had torn the storm apart.

Suomi NPP image of Mekkhala
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with a visible image of Tropical Storm Mekkhala as it was making landfall in southeastern China. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

Mekkhala made landfall in Fujian, southeastern China, bringing strong winds and torrential rain. According to the China Meteorological Agency, the typhoon came ashore in coastal areas of Zhangpu County at around 7:30 a.m. local time on Aug. 11 (7:30 p.m. EDT on Aug. 10). The storm generated at least 170 mm (6.7 inches) of rainfall in Zhangpu County by the middle of the day on Aug. 11.

At 11 p.m. EDT on Aug. 10 (0300 UTC, Aug. 11) the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued their final bulletin on Mekkhala. At that time, the storm was centered near latitude 24.1 degrees north and longitude 117.7 degrees east, about 216 nautical miles west-southwest of Taipei, Taiwan. Mekkhala’s maximum sustained winds were near 70 knots (81 mph/129 kph) at landfall. It continued to move to the north-northwest.

Wind Shear Tearing at Mekkhala

The shape of a tropical cyclone provides forecasters with an idea of its organization and strength. When outside winds batter a storm, it can change the storm’s shape and push much of the associated clouds and rain to one side of it which is what wind shear does.

In general, wind shear is a measure of how the speed and direction of winds change with altitude. Tropical cyclones are like rotating cylinders of winds. Each level needs to be stacked on top each other vertically in order for the storm to maintain strength or intensify. Wind shear occurs when winds at different levels of the atmosphere push against the rotating cylinder of winds, weakening the rotation by pushing it apart at different levels.

Suomi NPP’s Satellite View

On Aug. 11, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite showed a somewhat shapeless storm. Satellite imagery showed that Typhoon Mekkhala was quickly becoming sheared, with the outer low-level bands of thunderstorms on the north side of the system exposed, but with deep convection and strong thunderstorms remaining in place over and south of the center.

The JTWC expects Mekkhala to dissipate within the next day or two.

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Elida – Eastern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 11, 2020 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Night-time Animation Shows Intensification of Hurricane Elida

A new animation of night-time imagery from NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite revealed how the Eastern Pacific Ocean’s Elida transformed into a hurricane over a three-day period.


NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed the Eastern Pacific Ocean overnight on Aug. 10 at 10 p.m. EDT (Aug. 11 at 0000 UTC) and captured a night-time image of Hurricane Elida.  Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) 

NASA’s Night-Time View of Elida’s Intensification

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided a night-time image of Hurricane Elida during the early morning hours of Aug. 11 (8 p.m. EDT on Aug. 10). The storm had intensified into a hurricane and an eye was clearly apparent, surrounded by powerful thunderstorms around it.

Nighttime image of Elida
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed the Eastern Pacific Ocean overnight on Aug. 10 at 10 p.m. EDT (Aug. 11 at 0000 UTC) and captured a night-time image of Hurricane Elida. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

At NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. an animation of night-time imagery from NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite shows the development and intensification of Hurricane Elida in the Eastern Pacific Ocean from Aug. 9 to 11, 2020 at 0000 UTC (which is 8 p.m. EDT Aug. 8 to 10). On Aug. 9, Elida appeared somewhat shapeless, and by the night-time hours of Aug.10, the storm took on a general tropical cyclone shape with bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the low-level center. Elida became a hurricane by 5 p.m. EDT (2100 UTC) on Aug. 10. By Aug. 11, Elida had a tight circulation of powerful thunderstorms around the center and an eye was apparent on the night-time imagery.  The animation was created using the NASA Worldview application.

Hurricane Elida’s Status on Aug. 11

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Aug. 11, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted the center of Hurricane Elida was located near latitude 21.3 degrees north and longitude 113.8 degrees west. That is about 275 miles (440 km) west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico.

Elida was moving toward the northwest near 14 mph (22 kph). A west-northwestward to northwestward motion with a decrease in forward seed is expected during the next several days. Maximum sustained winds have increased to near 100 mph (155 kph) with higher gusts. Elida is now a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. Hurricane-force winds extend outward up to 15 miles (30 km) from the center and tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 70 miles (110 km). The estimated minimum central pressure is 975 millibars.

Rapid weakening is expected to begin tonight as Elida moves over colder water, and the cyclone is expected to weaken to a tropical storm on Wednesday and degenerate to a remnant low pressure area on Thursday, Aug. 13.

About NASA’s EOSDIS Worldview

NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.”

NASA Researches Earth from Space

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

06W – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 11, 2020 – NASA Finds a Wispy, Wind-Sheared Tropical Depression 06W  

NASA’s Terra satellite revealed that a wispy looking Tropical Depression 06W in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean was being battered by wind shear. That wind shear is not expected to wane and the storm is expected to weaken.

Terra image of 06W
On Aug. 11, 2020, NASA’s Terra satellite provided a visible image of Tropical Depression 06W in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean that showed a ring of wispy clouds around a fully-exposed, well-defined, low-level center of circulation. It also showed that any precipitation and thunderstorms were pushed to the south-southwest of the center from vertical wind shear. Japan is located in the top left of this image. Credit: NASA/NRL

Tropical Depression 06W formed two days ago on August 9 by 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) near latitude 26.1 degrees north and longitude 147.6 east, about 250 nautical miles east-northeast of Iwo To Island, Japan. 06W briefly strengthened to a tropical storm by 5 p.m. EDT (2100 UTC) when maximum sustained winds reached 45 knots (52 mph/83 kph). By Aug. 10 at 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) the storm had weakened back to tropical depression status.

On Aug. 11, 2020, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Terra satellite provided forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center in Honolulu, Hawaii with a visible image of Tropical Depression 06W. The image showed a ring of wispy clouds around a fully-exposed, well-defined, low-level center of circulation. It also showed that any precipitation and thunderstorms were pushed to the south-southwest of the center from vertical wind shear.

Vertical wind shear, that is, winds outside of a tropical cyclone at different heights in the atmosphere (the troposphere) push against a tropical cyclone and tear it apart. Winds from the north-northeast were affecting 06W. In addition, dry air was moving into the storm and sapping the development of the thunderstorms that make up a tropical cyclone.

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) on Aug. 11, the center of Tropical Depression 06W was located near latitude 26.6 degrees north and longitude 140.5 degrees east, about 681 nautical miles east of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa Island, Japan. 06W was moving to the west and had maximum sustained winds near 25 knots (29 mph/46 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) forecast notes that 06W will continue to move west and weaken before dissipating after a few days.

About NASA’s Worldview and Terra Satellite

NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.”

NASA’s Terra satellite is one in a fleet of NASA satellites that provide data for hurricane research.

Tropical cyclones/hurricanes are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Jangmi – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 11, 2020 – NASA Finds Jangmi Now an Extra-Tropical Storm

NASA’s Aqua satellite obtained a visible image of Tropical Storm Jangmi after it transitioned into an extra-tropical storm.

Aqua image of Jangmi
NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a visible image to forecasters of extra-tropical storm Jangmi in the Sea of Japan on Aug. 11, 2020. Image Courtesy: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) posted its final bulletin on Tropical Storm Jangmi on Aug. 10 at 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC). At that time, it was located near latitude 26.9 degrees north and longitude 130.4 degrees east, about 139 miles northeast of Chinhae, South Korea. Jangmi was speeding to the north-northeast at 29 knots and had maximum sustained winds of 35 knots (40 mph).

On Aug. 11, Jangmi had moved into the Sea of Japan and had become extra-tropical.

 What an Extra-tropical Storm Means

When a storm becomes extra-tropical, it means that a tropical cyclone has lost its “tropical” characteristics. The National Hurricane Center defines “extra-tropical” as a transition that implies both poleward displacement (meaning it moves toward the north or south pole) of the cyclone and the conversion of the cyclone’s primary energy source from the release of latent heat of condensation to baroclinic (the temperature contrast between warm and cold air masses) processes. It is important to note that cyclones can become extratropical and retain winds of hurricane or tropical storm force.

 The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a visible image of extra-tropical storm Jangmi in the Sea of Japan, near the Korea Strait. The Korea Strait is located between South Korea and Japan, connecting the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. The MODIS image showed that the storm had become somewhat elongated. Satellite imagery was created using NASA’s Worldview product at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

On Aug. 11, the Japan Meteorological Agency posted advisories along the prefectures in the Sea of Japan as Jangmi is forecast to move through it in a north-northeasterly direction and weaken. For updated warnings and watches, visit: https://www.jma.go.jp/en/warn/.

About NASA’s Worldview and Aqua Satellite

NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.”

NASA’s Aqua satellite is one in a fleet of NASA satellites that provide data for hurricane research.

Tropical cyclones/hurricanes are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center