Dolphin – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Sep. 21, 2020 – NASA Finds Tropical Storm Dolphin Going Swimmingly

NASA’s Terra satellite obtained visible imagery of recently formed Tropical Depression 14W as it strengthened into a tropical storm. Terra satellite imagery showed the storm was organizing.

Terra image of Dolphin
NASA’s Terra satellite provided a visible image to forecasters of Tropical Storm Dolphin on Sept. 21. The imagery showed the storm was consolidating and organizing. Image Courtesy: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS).

Dolphin developed from Tropical Depression 14W. 14W formed on Sept. 20 about 366 miles east-southeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa Island, Japan. By 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) on Sept. 21, the storm organized and strengthened into a tropical storm.

NASA Satellite View: Dolphin’s Organization

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Dolphin on Sept. 21. Satellite imagery revealed a persistent deep convection and development of thunderstorms wrapping into a low-level circulation center. That is an indication of consolidation and better organization.

The satellite image was created using NASA’s Worldview product at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

Tropical Storm Dolphin on Sept. 21

Tropical storm Dolphin was located about 625 nautical miles south-southwest of Yokosuka, Japan, near latitude 25.7 degrees north and longitude 135.0 degrees east. It was moving slowly to the north-northeast at 4 knots and had maximum sustained winds 45 knots (52 mph/83 kph).  

 Dolphin’s Forecast and Track  

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) forecasts that Dolphin will move north. Then later it is expect to turn to the northeast and strengthen to 55 knots.

JTWC forecasters expect the system to take on additional subtropical characteristics as it moves into an area of decreasing sea surface temperatures and increasing vertical wind shear. The storm’s upper level outflow is also expected to become more strongly associated with the robust westerly wind flow associated with the jet stream. By 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Sept. 22, the system will begin extratropical transition and will complete that transition to the south of Japan.

About NASA’s Worldview and Terra Satellite

NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.”

NASA’s Terra satellite is one in a fleet of NASA satellites that provide data for hurricane research.

Tropical cyclones/hurricanes are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Beta – Atlantic Ocean

Sep. 21, 2020 – NASA Looks at Rainfall Potential in Tropical Storm Beta 

Tropical Storm Beta is forecast to be a soaker because of its rainfall potential and its forecast slow movement along the Texas coast. NASA calculated rainfall rates within the storm to give forecasters an idea of its soaking potential.

GPM image of Beta
On Sept. 21 at 8 a.m. EDT (1200UTC), NASA’s IMERG estimated Tropical Beta was generating as much as 30 mm/1.18 inches of rain (dark pink) around the center of circulation, and over the Gulf of Mexico. Rainfall throughout most of the rest of the storm was occurring between 5 and 15 mm (0.2 to 0.6 inches/yellow and green colors) per hour. The rainfall data was overlaid on infrared imagery from NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite. Credit: NASA/NOAA/NRL

Using a NASA satellite rainfall product that incorporates data from satellites and observations, NASA found Beta was producing heavy rainfall off the coast of Texas.

Watches and Warnings on Sept. 21

NOAA’s National Hurricane Center posted a Storm Surge Warning from Port Aransas, Texas to Sabine Pass, Texas including Copano Bay, Aransas Bay, San Antonio Bay, Matagorda Bay, and Galveston Bay.

A Tropical Storm Warning is in effect for Port Aransas, Texas to Morgan City, Louisiana. A Tropical Storm Watch is in effect for Baffin Bay to Port Aransas, Texas.

Beta’s Status on Sept. 21

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Beta was located by an Air Force Reserve reconnaissance aircraft and NOAA Doppler weather radars near latitude 27.9 degrees north and longitude 95.7 degrees west. That is 55 miles (90 km) southeast of Port O’Connor, Texas, and about 75 miles (120 km) south-southeast of Freeport, Texas.

Beta was moving toward the west-northwest near 7 mph (11 kph), and this general motion is forecast to continue today. Data from the aircraft and Doppler radars indicate that maximum sustained winds are near 50 mph (85 kph) with higher gusts.

NOAA’s National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 175 miles (280 km) from the center. The estimated minimum central pressure based on data from the reconnaissance aircraft is 996 millibars.

Estimating Beta’s Rainfall Rates from Space

NASA’s Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM or IMERG, which is a NASA satellite rainfall product, estimated on Sept. 21 at 8 a.m. EDT (1200UTC), Beta was generating as much as 30 mm (1.18 inches) of rain per hour around the center of circulation. That area was off the coast of Texas and over Gulf of Mexico.

Rainfall throughout most of the storm was estimated as falling at a rate between 5 and 15 mm (0.2 to 0.6 inches) per hour. At the U.S. Naval Laboratory in Washington, D.C., the IMERG rainfall data was overlaid on infrared imagery from NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite to provide a full extent of the storm.

What Does IMERG Do?

This near-real time rainfall estimate comes from the NASA’s IMERG, which combines observations from a fleet of satellites, in near-real time, to provide near-global estimates of precipitation every 30 minutes. By combining NASA precipitation estimates with other data sources, we can gain a greater understanding of major storms that affect our planet.

What the IMERG does is “morph” high-quality satellite observations along the direction of the steering winds to deliver information about rain at times and places where such satellite overflights did not occur. Information morphing is particularly important over the majority of the world’s surface that lacks ground-radar coverage. Basically, IMERG fills in the blanks between weather observation stations

NHC Key Messages

The National Hurricane Center issued several key messages for Beta:

STORM SURGE:  The combination of a dangerous storm surge and the tide will cause normally dry areas near the coast to be flooded by rising waters moving inland from the shoreline.  The water could reach the following heights above ground somewhere in the indicated areas if the peak surge occurs at the time of high tide:

  • Port Aransas, TX to Sabine Pass, TX including Copano Bay, Aransas Bay, San Antonio Bay, Matagorda Bay, and Galveston Bay…2-4 ft
  • Sabine Pass, TX to Ocean Springs, MS including Sabine Lake, Lake Calcasieu, Vermilion Bay, Lake Borgne, Lake Pontchartrain, and Lake..1-3 ft
  • Baffin Bay, TX to Port Aransas, TX including Corpus Christi Bay and Baffin Bay… 1-3 ft
  • Mouth of the Rio Grande to Baffin Bay, TX…1-2 ft

The deepest water will occur along the immediate coast in areas of onshore winds where the surge will be accompanied by large and dangerous waves.  Surge-related flooding depends on the relative timing of the surge and the tidal cycle, and can vary greatly over short distances.

WIND:  Tropical storm conditions are expected to begin later this morning in portions of the tropical storm warning area. Tropical storm conditions are possible within the tropical storm watch area later today.

RAINFALL: Through Friday, Beta is expected to produce rainfall accumulations of 5 to 10 inches with isolated totals of 15 inches from the middle Texas coast to southeast Louisiana. Rainfall totals of 3 to 5 inches are expected northward into the ArkLaTex region and east into the Lower Mississippi Valley through the end of the week. Flash and urban flooding is likely, as well as isolated minor river flooding.

TORNADOES: A tornado or two could occur today and tonight, near the middle to upper Texas coast or the southwestern Louisiana coast.

SURF:  Swells generated by a combination of Beta and a cold front over the northern Gulf of Mexico will continue along the coasts of Louisiana and Texas during the next couple of days. These swells are likely to cause life-threatening surf and rip current conditions. Please consult products from your local weather office.

Beta’s Forecast

A decrease in forward speed and a sharp turn to the north and northeast are expected on Tuesday. On the forecast track, the center of Beta will continue to move toward the central coast of Texas today and will likely move inland by tonight. Little change in strength is forecast before Beta reaches the Texas coast. Weakening is anticipated once Beta moves inland. Beta is forecast to remain close to the coast of southeastern Texas on Tuesday and Wednesday.

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For more information about NASA’s IMERG, visit: https://pmm.nasa.gov/gpm/imerg-global-image

For forecast updates on hurricanes, visit: www.hurricanes.gov

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Teddy – Atlantic Ocean

Sep. 21, 2020 – NASA Analyzes Soaking Capabilities of Hurricane Teddy on Bermuda Approach

Using a NASA satellite rainfall product that incorporates data from satellites and observations, NASA estimated Hurricane Teddy’s rainfall rates as it approaches Bermuda on Sept. 21. Teddy is a large hurricane and growing. It is also churning up seas all the way to the U.S. and Canadian coastlines.

IMERG data from Teddy
On Sept. 21 at 6:30 a.m. EDT (1030 UTC), NASA’s IMERG estimated Hurricane Teddy was generating as much as 30 mm/1.18 inches of rain (dark pink) around the center of circulation. Rainfall throughout most of the rest of the storm was occurring between 5 and 15 mm (0.2 to 0.6 inches/yellow and green colors) per hour. The rainfall data was overlaid on infrared imagery from NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite. Credit: NASA/NOAA/NRL

Watches and Warnings on Sept. 21

NOAA’s National Hurricane Center posted a Tropical Storm Warning for Bermuda and a Tropical Storm Watch is in effect from Lower East Pubnico to Main-a-Dieu, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Teddy’s Status on Sept. 21

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Hurricane Teddy was located near latitude 31.1 degrees north and longitude 62.7 degrees west. That is about 150 miles (240 km) east-southeast of Bermuda and about 935 miles (1,500 km) south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Teddy was moving toward the north-northeast near 14 mph (22 kph), and this motion is expected to continue today, followed by a turn toward the north overnight and north-northwest on Tuesday.  Maximum sustained winds were near 90 mph (150 kph) with higher gusts. Teddy is a large hurricane. Hurricane-force winds extend outward up to 80 miles (130 km) from the center and tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 230 miles (370 km).

An Air Force Reserve Hurricane Hunter aircraft recently reported a minimum central pressure of 960 millibars.

Estimating Teddy’s Rainfall Rates from Space

NASA’s Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM or IMERG, which is a NASA satellite rainfall product, estimated on Sept. 21 at 6:30 a.m. EDT (1030 UTC), Teddy was generating as much as 30 mm (1.18 inches) of rain per hour around the center of circulation.

Rainfall throughout most of the storm was estimated as falling at a rate between 5 and 15 mm (0.2 to 0.6 inches) per hour. At the U.S. Naval Laboratory in Washington, D.C., the IMERG rainfall data was overlaid on infrared imagery from NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite to provide a full extent of the storm.

As Teddy moves north, that heavy rainfall is expected across Atlantic Canada between Tuesday and Thursday.

What Does IMERG Do?

This near-real time rainfall estimate comes from the NASA’s IMERG, which combines observations from a fleet of satellites, in near-real time, to provide near-global estimates of precipitation every 30 minutes. By combining NASA precipitation estimates with other data sources, we can gain a greater understanding of major storms that affect our planet.

What the IMERG does is “morph” high-quality satellite observations along the direction of the steering winds to deliver information about rain at times and places where such satellite overflights did not occur. Information morphing is particularly important over the majority of the world’s surface that lacks ground-radar coverage. Basically, IMERG fills in the blanks between weather observation stations

NHC Key Messages

The National Hurricane Center issued three key messages as Hurricane Teddy approaches Bermuda and grows in size:

  1. The center of Teddy is forecast to move east of Bermuda today. Wind gusts of tropical-storm-force have been reported on the island, and tropical storm conditions could continue today.
  2. Teddy is expected to transition to a powerful post-tropical cyclone as it moves near or over portions of Atlantic Canada late Tuesday through Thursday, where there is an increasing risk of direct impacts from wind, rain, and storm surge. A Tropical Storm Watch is in effect for portions of Nova Scotia, and heavy rainfall across Atlantic Canada is expected with Teddy between Tuesday and Thursday after it becomes a strong post-tropical cyclone.
  3. Large swells produced by Teddy are expected to affect portions of Bermuda, the Leeward Islands, the Greater Antilles, the Bahamas, the east coast of the United States, and Atlantic Canada during the next few days. These swells will likely cause life-threatening surf and rip current conditions.

Teddy’s Forecast

“Teddy’s size will likely increase substantially during the next couple of days as it moves northward and interacts with a frontal system,” said Eric Blake, a senior hurricane specialist at NOAA’s National Hurricane Center in Miami, Florida. “Gale force winds are likely along portions of the near shore waters of the northeast U.S.”

NHC forecasters said Teddy should turn to the north-northeast as it approaches Nova Scotia on Wednesday. Teddy is expected to gain strength overnight, but weaken steadily by Wednesday and become a strong post-tropical cyclone.

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For more information about NASA’s IMERG, visit: https://pmm.nasa.gov/gpm/imerg-global-image

For forecast updates on hurricanes, visit: www.hurricanes.gov

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

 

Alpha – Atlantic Ocean

Sep. 21, 2020 – NASA Satellite Found Post-Tropical Storm Alpha Fizzle Over Portugal and Spain

Former Subtropical Storm Alpha was a short-lived storm that formed and fizzled within 24 hours. NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite found the remnants of former Subtropical storm Alpha spreading over Portugal and northwestern Spain.

Suomi NPP image of Alpha
On Sept. 19 at 9:35 a.m. EDT (1335 UTC), NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite found the remnants of former Subtropical storm Alpha spread over Portugal and into northwestern Spain. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

Alpha formed off the coast of Portugal by 12:30 p.m. EDT (1630 UTC) on Friday, Sept. 18. Alpha made landfall in Portugal later that day around 5 p.m. EDT (2100 UTC) about 120 miles (195 km) north-northeast of Lisbon, Portugal.

On Friday, Sept. 18 at 11 p.m. EDT (0300 UTC on Sept. 19), the National Hurricane Center noted that the storm had become a post-tropical cyclone. Post-tropical is a generic term describes a cyclone that no longer possesses sufficient tropical characteristics to be considered a tropical cyclone. Post-tropical cyclones can continue carrying heavy rains and high winds. Former tropical cyclones that have become fully extratropical and remnant lows are two classes of post-tropical cyclones.

On Sept. 18 at 11 p.m. EDT (0300 UTC on Sept. 19) METEOSAT satellite imagery, radar data, and surface observations indicated that Alpha had degenerated to a post-tropical remnant low just a few miles to the southeast of Viseu, Portugal.

Less than 12 hours later on Sept. 19 at 9:35 a.m. EDT (1335 UTC), the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite found the remnants of former Subtropical storm Alpha spread over Portugal and into northwestern Spain.

The National Hurricane Center forecast called for the remnants to move into north central Spain later on Saturday, Sept. 19 and dissipated by Sept. 20 at 0000 UTC (Sept. 19 at 8 p.m. EDT).

Additional information on this system can be found in products from the Portuguese Institute for Sea and Atmosphere at www.ipma.pt

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Wilfred – Atlantic Ocean

Sep. 21, 2020 – NASA Sees Wilfred Degenerate into a Trough

Former Tropical Storm Wilfred weakened in the Central Atlantic Ocean and NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided a visible image after the storm became a trough or elongated area of low pressure.

Suomi NPP image of Wilfred
On Sept. 20, NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite captured a visible image Wilfred as it opened up into an elongated area of low pressure in the Central North Atlantic Ocean. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

On Sunday, Sept. 20 at 11 p.m. EDT, NOAA’s National Hurricane Center issued their final advisory on Wilfred. Wilfred degenerated into a trough of low or elongated areas of low pressure. At that time, the remnants of Wilfred were located near latitude 15.9 degrees north latitude and longitude 47.4 degrees west. The remnants were moving toward the west near 17 mph (28 kph), and this general motion should continue during the next day or two.

Maximum sustained winds were near 35 mph (55 kph) and forecasters expect winds to continue decreasing over the next couple of days.

Northwesterly vertical wind shear continued to take a toll on Wilfred. Infrared satellite imagery along with scatterometer (wind) data indicated that Wilfred’s low-level circulation had become an open trough of low pressure. Therefore, Wilfred was no longer a tropical cyclone.

On Sept. 20, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite captured a visible image of Wilfred as it opened up into an elongated area of low pressure in the Central North Atlantic Ocean. The remaining thunderstorm development appeared to have a linear shape. Those storms appear to be the result of the system interacting with an upper-level trough located to its northwest.

The trough should continue to move westward at a slightly slower forward speed until it weakens and dissipates within a few days.

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Alpha – Atlantic Ocean

Sep. 18, 2020 – NASA’s Aqua Satellite Helps Confirm Subtropical Storm Alpha

Subtropical Storm Alpha has formed near the coast of Portugal, becoming the first named storm using the Greek Alphabet list, now that the annual list of names is exhausted. NASA’s Aqua satellite obtained visible imagery of the new storm.

Aqua image of Alpha
On Sept. 18, 2020, NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a visible image of Subtropical Storm Alpha in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean near Portugal’s coast. Image Courtesy: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS).

NASA Satellite View

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Subtropical Storm Alpha on Sept. 18 at 8:30 a.m. EDT (1:30 p.m. local time) near Portugal. The image showed a better-organized small low-pressure area that has been rotating around a larger extratropical low pressure area. Satellite imagery shows that moderate-to-deep convection has persisted near the center creating thunderstorms since last night. Meanwhile scatterometer data shows a closed 40-knot low-pressure area, and the National Hurricane Center noted that radar images from Portugal show a definite organized convective pattern.

Although Alpha is “likely neutral- or cold-core, it has developed enough tropical characteristics to be considered a subtropical storm,” said Eric Blake, senior hurricane specialist at NOAA’s National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami, Fla.

Satellite imagery was created using NASA’s Worldview product at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

Alpha’s Status

At 12:30 p.m. EDT (1630 UTC), NOAA’s National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted the center of Subtropical Storm Alpha was located near latitude 39.9 degrees north and longitude 9.3 degrees west. That is just 75 miles (125 km) north of Lisbon, Portugal. The storm is moving toward the northeast near 17 mph (28 kph), and this general motion is expected during the next day or so before dissipation. Maximum sustained winds are near 50 mph (85 kph) with higher gusts. The estimated minimum central pressure is 999 millibars.

Alpha’s Impacts

Alpha should move across the coast of west-central Portugal during the next couple of days. Little change in strength is expected before landfall, with rapid weakening over land through the weekend.

NHC said Alpha is expected to produce 1 to 2 inches (25 to 50 mm) of rainfall, with isolated amounts of 3 inches (75 mm) over the northern portion of Portugal and into west-central Spain through Saturday morning.

Information on wind hazards from Alpha can be found in products from the Portuguese Institute for Sea and Atmosphere at www.ipma.pt.

Global models show the small low pressure area moving northeastward for the next 24 hours before dissipating over northern Spain or the Bay of Biscay.

About NASA’s Worldview and Aqua Satellite

NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.”

NASA’s Aqua satellite is one in a fleet of NASA satellites that provide data for hurricane research.

Tropical cyclones/hurricanes are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

TD22 – Gulf of Mexico

Sep. 18, 2020 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Sees Tropical Depression 22 Strengthening in Gulf of Mexico

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided an infrared image of Tropical Depression 22 in the Gulf of Mexico during the early morning hours of Sept. 18. TD22 is expected to become a tropical storm, according to the National Hurricane Center (NHC).

Suomi NPP Image of TD22 in the Gulf
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed the Gulf of Mexico on Sept. 18 at 3:40 a.m. EDT (0740 UTC) and captured a night-time image of Tropical Depression 22, centered in the Gulf of Mexico, east of northern Mexico. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

NASA’s Night-Time View  

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided a nighttime image of Tropical Depression 22. The nighttime image taken on Sept. 18 at 3:40 a.m. EDT (0740 UTC) showed Tropical Depression 22, centered in the Gulf of Mexico, east of northern Mexico.

The image was created using the NASA Worldview application at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

By 11 a.m. EDT, the National Hurricane Center noted satellite imagery showed Tropical Depression 22 was getting better organized, with gradually increasing convective banding (of thunderstorms) in the northeastern semicircle.

NHC Senior Hurricane Specialist Jack Beven noted, “Given the lack of organization seen in earlier scatterometer data, the intensity will be held at 30 knots pending the data from the next set of scatterometer overpasses.  It should be noted that the Air Force Reserve Hurricane Hunter aircraft that was scheduled to investigate the depression had to turn back after getting hit by lightning.”

TD22’s Status on Friday, Sept. 18

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Depression 22 was located near latitude 23.8 degrees north and longitude 93.9 degrees west. The depression is moving toward the north-northeast near 7 mph (11 kph), and this general motion is expected through early Saturday. Maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 kph) with higher gusts. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1005 millibars.

TD22’s Forecast

A slow westward motion is forecast to begin late Saturday afternoon or Saturday night, and this motion will likely continue into early next week. Strengthening is forecast during the next few days, and the depression is expected to become a tropical storm later today. The system could be near or at hurricane strength by Sunday.

NHC Key Messages for TD22

The National Hurricane Center issued three key messages for Tropical Depression 22:

  1. Tropical Depression 22 is expected to strengthen to a tropical storm, and possibly a hurricane, while moving slowly over the western Gulf of Mexico during the next few days.
  2. There is an increasing risk of heavy rainfall and flooding along the Texas coast from Sunday through at least the middle of next week as the system is forecast to move slowly near the Texas coast.
  3. While it is too early to determine what areas could see direct wind and storm surge impacts from this system, interests throughout the western Gulf of Mexico should monitor the progress of this system and future updates to the forecast.

About NASA’s EOSDIS Worldview

NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.”

NASA Researches Earth from Space

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For updated forecasts, visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

 

 

Wilfred – Atlantic Ocean

Sep. 18, 2020 – NASA Confirms Development of Record-Breaking Tropical Storm Wilfred, Ending Hurricane List

The list of hurricane names is officially used up with the development of the 23rd tropical cyclone of the year. Tropical Storm Wilfred just formed in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean today, Sept. 18. Using a NASA satellite rainfall product that incorporates data from satellites and observations, NASA estimated Wilfred’s rainfall rates.

IMERG data on Wilfred's rainfall
On Sept. 18 at 5:30 a.m. EDT (0930 UTC), NASA’s IMERG estimated Tropical Storm Wilfred was generating as much as 30 mm/1.18 inches of rain (dark pink) around the center of circulation. Rainfall throughout most of the storm and in fragmented bands of thunderstorms to the southeast of the center, was occurring between 5 and 15 mm (0.2 to 0.6 inches/yellow and green colors) per hour. The rainfall data was overlaid on infrared imagery from NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite. Credit: NASA/NOAA/NRL

All of the names on the 2020 official list of hurricane names for the Atlantic Ocean hurricane season have now been claimed. That means the next system that forms into a tropical storm will get a name from the Greek Alphabet. This only happened once in Atlantic hurricane history, back in 2005. If Tropical Depression 22, located in the Gulf of Mexico, becomes a tropical storm it would be named Alpha.

Eric Blake, Senior Hurricane Specialist at NOAA’s National Hurricane Center in Miami, Fla. noted, “Wilfred has formed, continuing the record-setting pace of the 2020 hurricane season since it is the earliest 21st named storm on record, about 3 weeks earlier than Vince of 2005.”

Wilfred’s Status on Sept. 18

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Wilfred was located near latitude 11.9 degrees north and longitude 32.4 degrees west. That is 630 miles (1,105 km) west-southwest of the Cabo Verde Islands. Wilfred is moving toward the west-northwest near 17 mph (28 kph) and this general motion is expected for the next few days.

Maximum sustained winds are near 40 mph (65 km/h) with higher gusts. Some slight strengthening is possible today, and weakening should start this weekend and continue into next week. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1008 millibars.

Estimating Wilfred’s Rainfall Rates from Space

NASA’s Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM or IMERG, which is a NASA satellite rainfall product, estimated on Sept. 18 at 5:30 a.m. EDT (0930 UTC), Wilfred was generating as much as 30 mm (1.18 inches) of rain per hour around the center of circulation.

Rainfall throughout most of the storm and in fragmented bands of thunderstorms to the southeast of the center was estimated as falling at a rate between 5 and 15 mm (0.2 to 0.6 inches) per hour. At the U.S. Naval Laboratory in Washington, D.C., the IMERG rainfall data was overlaid on infrared imagery from NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite to provide a full extent of the storm.

What Does IMERG Do?

This near-real time rainfall estimate comes from the NASA’s IMERG, which combines observations from a fleet of satellites, in near-real time, to provide near-global estimates of precipitation every 30 minutes. By combining NASA precipitation estimates with other data sources, we can gain a greater understanding of major storms that affect our planet.

What the IMERG does is “morph” high-quality satellite observations along the direction of the steering winds to deliver information about rain at times and places where such satellite overflights did not occur. Information morphing is particularly important over the majority of the world’s surface that lacks ground-radar coverage. Basically, IMERG fills in the blanks between weather observation stations.

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For more information about NASA’s IMERG, visit: https://pmm.nasa.gov/gpm/imerg-global-image

For forecast updates on hurricanes, visit: www.hurricanes.gov

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Teddy – Atlantic Ocean

Sep 18, 2020 – NASA Estimates Powerful Hurricane Teddy’s Extreme Rainfall

Using a NASA satellite rainfall product that incorporates data from satellites and observations, NASA estimated Hurricane Teddy’s rainfall rates. Teddy is a major hurricane in the Central North Atlantic Ocean.

GPM image of Teddy
On Sept. 18 at 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC), NASA’s IMERG estimated Hurricane Teddy was generating as much as (30 mm/1.18 inches of rain (dark pink) on the western side of its eye. Rainfall throughout most of the storm was occurring between 5 and 15 mm (0.2 to 0.6 inches/yellow and green colors) per hour. The rainfall data was overlaid on infrared imagery from NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite. Credit: NASA/NOAA/NRL

On Sept. 18, NOAA’s National Hurricane Center (NHC) warned that Teddy remains a powerful hurricane over the Central Atlantic Ocean, and large ocean swells are forecast to spread across much of the western Atlantic increasing a rip current threat.

Hurricane Teddy’s Status on Sept. 18

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), the center of Hurricane Teddy was located near latitude 21.6 degrees north and longitude 55.4 degrees west. That is about 550 miles (890 km) east-northeast of the Northern Leeward Islands, and about 935 miles (1,510 km) southeast of Bermuda.

Teddy is moving toward the northwest near 12 mph (19 kph) and this general motion is expected to continue for the next couple of days, followed by a turn to the north by early next week. Maximum sustained winds are near 130 mph (215 kph) with higher gusts. Teddy is a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.  Some fluctuations in strength are expected during the next day or so. The estimated minimum central pressure is 947 millibars.

Estimating Teddy’s Rainfall Rates from Space

NASA’s Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM or IMERG, which is a NASA satellite rainfall product, estimated on Sept. 18 at 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC), Hurricane Teddy was generating as much as 30 mm (1.18 inches) of rain per hour on the western side of its eye. That was the area of where the heaviest rainfall was occurring.

Rainfall throughout most of the rest of the storm was estimated as falling at a rate between 5 and 15 mm (0.2 to 0.6 inches) per hour. At the U.S. Naval Laboratory in Washington, D.C., the IMERG rainfall data was overlaid on infrared imagery from NOAA’s GOES-16 satellite to provide a full extent of the storm.

“Teddy remains a powerful category 4 hurricane with a well-defined eye and intense eyewall,” said John Cangialosi Senior Hurricane Specialist at NHC in Miami, Fla. “There have been occasional dry slots that have eroded some of the convection in the eyewall and rain bands, but these seem to be transient.”

What Does IMERG Do?

This near-real time rainfall estimate comes from the NASA’s IMERG, which combines observations from a fleet of satellites, in near-real time, to provide near-global estimates of precipitation every 30 minutes. By combining NASA precipitation estimates with other data sources, we can gain a greater understanding of major storms that affect our planet.

Instead, what the IMERG does is “morph” high-quality satellite observations along the direction of the steering winds to deliver information about rain at times and places where such satellite overflights did not occur. Information morphing is particularly important over the majority of the world’s surface that lacks ground-radar coverage. Basically, IMERG fills in the blanks between weather observation stations.

NHC Key Messages for Teddy

The NHC issued key messages for Teddy, including about its forecast track and the ocean swells it is generating.

NHC said Teddy is expected to approach Bermuda as a hurricane this weekend and make its closest approach to the island late Sunday or Monday (Sept. 20 or 21). While the exact details of Teddy’s track and intensity near the island are not yet known, the risk of strong winds, storm surge, and heavy rainfall on Bermuda is increasing.

Large swells produced by Teddy are expected to affect portions of the Leeward Islands, the Greater Antilles, the Bahamas, Bermuda, and the southeastern United States during the next few days. These swells could cause life-threatening surf and rip current conditions.

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contribues directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

For more information about NASA’s IMERG, visit: https://pmm.nasa.gov/gpm/imerg-global-image

For forecast updates on hurricanes, visit: www.hurricanes.gov

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Noul – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Sep. 18, 2020 – NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP Satellite Finds Tropical Storm Noul Fading over Laos

Tropical Storm Noul made landfall in central Vietnam on Sept. 17 and NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite captured an image of the storm over Laos. Noul was weakening as it moves toward Thailand where it is forecast to dissipate.

Suomi NPP image of Noul
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with a visible image of Tropical Storm Noul over Laos on Sept. 18. It is expected to dissipate over Thailand in a day. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) reported that the system made landfall just north of Hue, Vietnam at about 0100 UTC on Sept. 18 (9 p.m. EDT on Sept. 17) and had begun to track inland.

On Sept. 18 at 3 a.m. EDT (0700 UTC/2 p.m. Vietnam local time), the VIIRS instrument aboard the Suomi NPP satellite provided a visible image of Noul as it moved into Thailand. The storm appeared shapeless and the low-level center was difficult to find. Deep convection is obscuring the low-level circulation center which has tracked inland and is located over Laos.

By 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), JTWC issued the final bulletin on the storm. At that time, Tropical storm Noul was located near latitude 16.4 degrees north and longitude 104.4 degrees east, about 174 nautical miles west of Da Nang, Vietnam and over Laos. It was moving to the west and had maximum sustained winds 40 knots (46 mph/74 kph).

Noul is now dissipating as it moves toward Thailand.

NASA Researches Tropical Cyclones

Hurricanes/tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For more than five decades, NASA has used the vantage point of space to understand and explore our home planet, improve lives and safeguard our future. NASA brings together technology, science, and unique global Earth observations to provide societal benefits and strengthen our nation. Advancing knowledge of our home planet contributes directly to America’s leadership in space and scientific exploration.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center