06A – Northern Indian Ocean

Dec. 04, 2019 – NASA Sees Tropical Storm 06A Maintaining Strength

NASA’s Aqua satellite found some powerful storms in Tropical Storm 06A as it moved through the Arabian Sea toward Somalia.

Aqua image of 06A
On Dec. 4 at 4:55 a.m. EST (0955 UTC), the MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite gathered temperature information about Tropical Storm 06A’s cloud tops. MODIS found several small areas of powerful thunderstorms (yellow) where temperatures were as cold as or colder than minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 degrees Celsius), embedded in a much larger area of slightly warmer cloud tops (red) of minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 56.6 Celsius). Credit: NASA/NRL

NASA’s Aqua satellite used infrared light to analyze the strength of storms in 06A and found it was maintaining strength. Infrared data provides temperature information, and the strongest thunderstorms that reach high into the atmosphere have the coldest cloud top temperatures.

On Dec. 4 at 4:55 a.m. EST (0955 UTC), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite gathered temperature information about Tropical Storm 06A’s cloud tops. MODIS found several small areas of powerful thunderstorms where temperatures were as cold as or colder than minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 degrees Celsius), embedded in a much larger area of slightly warmer cloud tops of minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 56.6 Celsius). Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms with the potential to generate heavy rainfall.

On Dec. 4 at 10 a.m., EST (1500 UTC), Tropical Storm 06A was located near latitude 8.4 degrees north and longitude 57.0 degrees east in the Arabian Sea, Northern Indian Ocean. That is about 864 nautical miles east-southeast of Djibouti. Djibouti is a sovereign state in the Horn of Africa with a coastline on the Gulf of Aden. It is bordered by Somalia to the south, Ethiopia to the west, and Etriea to the north. 06A was moving to the northwest and had maximum sustained winds near 35 knots (40 mph/65 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC noted, “The storm’s good outflow (air that flows outwards from a storm system) and warm sea surface temperatures are being offset by strong (20-25 knots/23-29 mph/37-46 kph) vertical wind shear to make the environment marginally supportive. Tropical Storm 06A appeared to accelerate west-northwestward over the past six hours, suggesting a subtropical ridge (an elongated area of high pressure) to the north has become the primary steering mechanism.” Over the next 24 hours, the subtropical ridge will cause 06A to turn onto a west southwestward track and remain there until making landfall and dissipating.

Tropical Storm 06A is expected to make landfall in east central Somalia late on Dec. 6.

Tropical cyclones and hurricanes are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

07A – Northern Indian Ocean

Dec. 04, 2019 – NASA Finds Wind Shear Battering Tropical Cyclone 07A

NASA’s Aqua satellite found that wind shear was tearing at Tropical Storm 07A in the Arabian Sea.

Aqua image of 07A
On Dec. 4 at 3:20 a.m. EST (0820 UTC), the MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite gathered temperature information about Tropical Storm 07A’s cloud tops. MODIS found three small areas of powerful thunderstorms (red) where temperatures were as cold as or colder than minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 56.6 Celsius). MODIS also showed westerly wind shear was pushing the bulk of clouds east of the storm’s center. Credit: NASA/NRL

NASA’s Aqua satellite used infrared light to analyze the strength of storms in 07A. Infrared data provides temperature information, and the strongest thunderstorms that reach high into the atmosphere have the coldest cloud top temperatures. On Dec. 4 at 3:20 a.m. EST (0820 UTC), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite gathered temperature information about Tropical Storm 07A’s cloud tops. MODIS found three small areas of powerful thunderstorms where temperatures were as cold as or colder than minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 56.6 Celsius). Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms with the potential to generate heavy rainfall.

Cloud tops surrounding those small areas were warmer, indicating those storms were weaker. The bulk of thunderstorms in 07A were warmer than minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit and they were being pushed to the east from westerly wind shear.

In general, wind shear is a measure of how the speed and direction of winds change with altitude. Tropical cyclones are like rotating cylinders of winds. Each level needs to be stacked on top each other vertically in order for the storm to maintain strength or intensify. Wind shear occurs when winds at different levels of the atmosphere push against the rotating cylinder of winds, weakening the rotation by pushing it apart at different levels. Winds from the west were displacing the bulk of clouds and showers from 07A and pushing them to the east.

On Dec. 4 at 4 a.m., EST (0900 UTC), Tropical Storm 07A was located near latitude 14.9 degrees north and longitude 68.7 degrees east in the Arabian Sea, Northern Indian Ocean. That is about 616 nautical miles south of Karachi, Pakistan. 07A was moving to the northwest and had maximum sustained winds near 45 knots.

Tropical Storm 07A is expected to weaken to a depression by Dec. 5 and then dissipate.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

07A – Northern Indian Ocean

Dec. 03, 2019 – NASA Finds Second Tropical System Develops in Arabian Sea

Tropical Storm 07A has developed in the eastern Arabian Sea, one day after Tropical Storm 06A developed in the western part of the sea. Infrared imagery from an instrument aboard Terra revealed that very high, powerful storms with very cold cloud top temperatures were southwest of the center.

Terra image of 07A
On Dec. 3 at 12 pm. EST (1700 UTC) the MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Terra satellite showed the southeastern quadrant of newly formed Tropical Storm 07A where cloud top temperatures (in yellow) were as cold as or colder than minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 Celsius). Credit: NASA/NRL

Tropical Storm 07A developed on Dec. 2 from a low-pressure area designated as System 91A. The storm consolidated into a tropical storm today and was renamed 07A.

Tropical cyclones are made of up hundreds of thunderstorms, and infrared data can show where the strongest storms are located. They can do with infrared data that provides temperature information.  The strongest thunderstorms that reach highest into the atmosphere have the coldest cloud top temperatures.

On Dec. 3 at 12 pm. EST (1700 UTC) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Terra satellite showed the southeastern quadrant of newly formed Tropical Storm 07A where cloud top temperatures (in yellow) were as cold as or colder than minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 Celsius). NASA research has found that cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms with the potential to generate heavy rainfall.

On Dec. 3 at 10 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), Tropical Storm 07A had maximum sustained winds near 35 knots (40 mph /65 kph). It was located near latitude 13.4 degrees north and longitude 70.2 degrees east, about 367 nautical miles south-southwest of Mumbai, India.

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center expect 07A will move northwest. The system is not expected to intensify and is expected to dissipate in a day or so.

Tropical cyclones are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA researches these storms to determine how they rapidly intensify, develop and behave. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Kammuri – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Dec. 03, 2019 – NASA Catches Typhoon Kammuri Post Landfall

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP or S-NPP satellite provided infrared and night-time imagery of Typhoon Kammuri shortly after it made landfall in the Philippines.

Suomi NPP infrared image of Kammuri
NASA-NOAA’s S-NPP satellite provided an infrared image of Typhoon Kammuri on Dec. 2 at 12:07 p.m. EST (1707 UTC) that showed the eye near Gubat, Sorsogon, the southeastern part of Luzon. A wide, thick band of powerful thunderstorms (red) circled the entire eye, where cloud top temperatures were as cold as or colder than 210 Kelvin (minus 81.6 degrees Fahrenheit/minus 63.1 degrees Celsius). NASA research has shown that cloud top temperatures that cold or colder have the ability to generate heavy rainfall. The strongest storms were west and southwest of center where cloud tops were as cold (black) as 119 Kelvin (minus 117.6 degrees Fahrenheit/minus 83.1 degrees Celsius). Credit: NOAA/NASA/UWM-CIMSS-SSEC/William Straka III

On Dec 2 at 7 a.m. EST (1200 UTC) Kammuri, known as Tisoy in the Philippines, had maximum sustained winds near 115 knots (132 mph), and that made it a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.

Per the 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC) bulletin from the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), at 11 p.m. PHT, Philippine  Standard Time. Kammuri (Tisoy) made landfall near Gubat, Sorsogon which is located in the extreme southeastern part of Luzon, Philippines

Views of a Typhoon from NASA Satellites

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP or S-NPP satellite saw Typhoon Kammuri on Dec. 2 at 12:07 p.m. EST (1707 UTC). Infrared and nighttime images were created by William Straka III, Researcher at the University of Wisconsin – Madison, Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC), Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS). The infrared image showed the eye of Kammuri (Tisoy) near Gubat, Sorsogon, in the southeastern part of Luzon. A thick,wide band of powerful thunderstorms circled the entire eye, where cloud top temperatures were as cold as or colder than 210 Kelvin (minus 81.6 degrees Fahrenheit/minus 63.1 degrees Celsius). NASA research has shown that cloud top temperatures that cold or colder have the ability to generate heavy rainfall.

Straka noted that several prominent features include tropospheric gravity waves along with multiple overshooting cloud tops. In addition, there were also some mesospheric gravity waves. Infrared data revealed coldest temperatures of cloud tops were as cold as 119 Kelvin (minus 117.6 degrees Fahrenheit/minus 83.1 degrees Celsius) in the western and southwestern quadrants of the storm. Those were the most powerful storms that likely produced the highest rainfall rates.

Suomi NPP nighttime image of Kammuri
NASA-NOAA’s S-NPP satellite provided an infrared image of Typhoon Kammuri on Dec. 2 at 12:07 p.m. EST (1707 UTC) that showed the eye near Gubat, Sorsogon, in southeastern part of Luzon. City lights could be seen to the north and south of the storm, in Northern Luzon, Western and Central Visayas regions, and Northern Mindanao. The eastern Visayas and Bicol regions were covered by Kammuri’s clouds. Credit: NOAA/NASA/UWM-CIMSS-SSEC/William Straka III

In the nighttime image from the S-NPP satellite, Kammuri’s eye was visible near Gubat, Sorsogon, in southeastern Luzon. City lights could be seen to the north and south of the storm, in Northern Luzon, Western and Central Visayas regions, and Northern Mindanao. The eastern Visayas and Bicol regions were covered by Kammuri’s clouds.

On Dec. 2 at 12:11 a.m. EST (0511 UTC), the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a look at the cloud top temperatures in Typhoon Kammuri. A thick, wide band of powerful thunderstorms (red) circled the entire eye, where cloud top temperatures were as cold as or colder than 210 Kelvin (minus 81.6 degrees Fahrenheit/minus 63.1 degrees Celsius), which confirmed the Suomi NPP satellite data.

AIRS image of Kammuri
On Dec. 2 at 12:11 a.m. EST (0511 UTC), the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a look at the cloud top temperatures in Typhoon Kammuri. A thick, wide band of powerful thunderstorms (red) circled the entire eye, where cloud top temperatures were as cold as or colder than 210 Kelvin (minus 81.6 degrees Fahrenheit/minus 63.1 degrees Celsius), which confirmed the Suomi NPP satellite data. Credit: NASA JPL/Heidar Thrastarson

Warnings in Effect on Dec. 3, 2019

PAGASA continues to track Kammuri in order to assess the impacts on the various islands in the path of the storm.  On Dec. 3, PAGASA maintained the following warnings.

Tropical Cyclone Wind Signal number 3 was in effect for Luzon: Northern Occidental Mindoro, Lubang Island.

Tropical Cyclone Wind Signal number 2 was in effect for Luzon: Oriental Mindoro, Batangas, rest of Occidental Mindoro, Marinduque, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Bataan, Metro Manila, southern Bulacan, southern Pampanga, southern Zambales, Calamian Islands, and western parts of Quezon.

Tropical Cyclone Wind Signal number 1 was in effect for Luzon: Northern parts of Camarines Sur, southern Neuva Ecija, southern Aurora, northern parts of Palawan, Cuyo Islands, rest of Quezon, rest of Camaines Sur, rest of Zambales, rest of Pampanga and rest of Bulacan. In addition, Signal 1 was in effect for Visayas: Northern Aklan and northern Antique.

Status of Kammuri (Tisoy) on Dec. 3

On Dec. 3, 2019 at 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC) Typhoon Kammuri (Tisoy) was located near latitude 13.2 degrees north, and longitude 120.1 degrees east,  about 99 nautical miles south-southwest of Manila, Philippines.  Kammuri is moving west and had maximum sustained winds of 80 knots (92 mph/148 kph). 

Typhoon Kammuri continues to weaken as it emerges on the western edges of the Philippine archipelago. The storm is forecast to turn to the east-northeast and is expected to quickly turn to the south-southwest and dissipate.

For updated forecasts from PAGASA, visit: www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

06A – Northern Indian Ocean

Dec. 03, 2019 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Finds Development of Tropical Cyclone 06A

Imagery from NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite showed that a tropical depression in the Arabian Sea has consolidated and organized despite facing wind shear. Tropical Depression 06A is now Tropical Cyclone 06A.

Suomi NPP image of Tropical Cyclone 06A
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over Tropical Cyclone 06A in the Arabian Sea on Dec. 3 and a visible image of 06A that revealed powerful storms were northwest of the center of circulation. The center of circulation is apparent in the VIIRS image as a small area of circulation located southeast of the bulk of clouds and showers. Credit: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided a visible image of 06A that revealed powerful storms were northwest of the center of circulation, but the storm was able to strengthen despite the harsh environmental conditions. The center of circulation is apparent in the VIIRS image as a small area of circulation located southeast of the bulk of clouds and showers.

In general, wind shear is a measure of how the speed and direction of winds change with altitude. Tropical cyclones are like rotating cylinders of winds. Each level needs to be stacked on top each other vertically in order for the storm to maintain strength or intensify. Wind shear occurs when winds at different levels of the atmosphere push against the rotating cylinder of winds, weakening the rotation by pushing it apart at different levels. In the case of Tropical Cyclone 06A, southeasterly winds are pushing the bulk of the storm’s clouds to the northwest.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii noted, “A fully exposed low level circulation center in animated multispectral satellite imagery. Strong (20-30 knot/ 23 to 34.5 mph /32 to 55.5 kph) vertical wind shear is offsetting good poleward outflow and warm (28 to 29 degrees Celsius/82.4 to 84.2 degrees Fahrenheit) sea surface temperature, hampering intensification.” Tropical cyclones require sea surface temperatures of at least 26.6 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) to maintain strength or intensify, so the warmer sea surface temperatures are allowing 06A to maintain its strength.

JTWC noted that at 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC) on Dec. 3, that 06A had maximum sustained winds near 35 knots (40 mph/65 kph). 06A was located near latitude 7.1 degrees north and longitude 57.4 degrees east. It was about 784 nautical miles east-northeast of Mogadishu, Somalia.

It is moving to the northeast, however, and the track will slowly turn west southwestward as a subtropical ridge (elongated area of high pressure) builds back in to the north.

Tropical Cyclone 06A is forecast to make landfall in east central Somalia on Dec. 6 as a tropical storm.

Tropical cyclones and hurricanes are the most powerful weather events on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Kammuri – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Dec. 02, 2019 – Satellite Imagery shows Typhoon Kammuri’s Center Obscured

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP or S-NPP satellite passed over the Philippine Sea in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and found Typhoon Kammuri’s eye obscured.

Suomi NPP infrared image of Kammuri
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite saw Typhoon Kammuri on Nov. 30 at 1:04 p.m. EST (1604 UTC) showed a large central dense overcast (CDO) that would obscure the low-level circulation. Infrared data revealed temperatures of cloud tops (black) were as cold as 119 Kelvin (minus 117.6 degrees Fahrenheit/minus 83.1 degrees Celsius). Credit: NOAA/NASA/UWM-CIMSS-SSEC/William Straka III

Since Kammuri has now entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility, defined by the World Meteorological Organization, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), it has been assigned a parallel name of “Tisoy.” The rational is that it is felt that Filipinos will respond more to familiar names and that it helps to underscore that these named weather disturbances pose a direct threat to the country.  However, for the purposes of these discussions, the international recognized name designated by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) Tokyo –Kammuri–will be used.

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) continues to track Kammuri in order to assess the impacts on the various islands in the path of the storm. In anticipation of the storm, PAGASA has continued to issue flood alerts to various locations. This is especially important due to the fact most of the population is along the coast and in low-lying areas.

NASA-NOAA’s S-NPP satellite saw Typhoon Kammuri on Nov. 30 at 1:04 p.m. EST (1604 UTC) on the extreme western side of the pass for the satellite. Imagery continued to show a large central dense overcast (CDO) that would obscure the low-level circulation.

The CDO of a tropical cyclone is the large central area of thunderstorms surrounding its circulation center. It is caused by the formation of its eyewall. It can be round, angular, oval, or irregular.

Terra image of Kammuri
On Dec. 2, visible imagery from the MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite showed that Kammuri’s eye continued to be covered by clouds. The western quadrant of Kammuri was already over the eastern central Philippines. Credit: NASA Worldview

Several prominent features in the CDO include tropospheric gravity waves along with multiple overshooting tops. In addition, while this normally would be in the “noisy” part of the scene for the Day Night Band on S-NPP, there was still enough signal from the airglow (the moon was at waxing crescent with 16% illumination) to see mesospheric gravity waves along with a single lone lightning streak within the CDO. Infrared data revealed temperatures of cloud tops were as cold as 119 Kelvin (minus 117.6 degrees Fahrenheit/minus 83.1 degrees Celsius).

On Dec. 2, visible imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite showed that Kammuri’s eye continued to be covered by clouds. The western quadrant of Kammuri was already over the eastern central Philippines.

On Dec. 2, 2019 at 4 a.m. EST (0900 UTC) Typhoon Kammuri (Tisoy in the Philippines) was located near latitude 13.0 degrees north, and longitude 125.6 degrees east, about 285 nautical miles east-southeast of Manila, Philippines.  Kammuri (Tisoy) is moving west and had maximum sustained winds 105 knots (121 mph/193 kph).

At 7 a.m. EST (1200), PAGASA raised 3 warning signals on Dec. 2. Tropical Cyclone Wind Signal number 3 is in effect for Luzon: Catanduanes, Camarines Sur, Albay, Sorsogon, southern portion of Camarines Norte, Masbate including Ticao and Burias Islands, Romblon, and southern portion of Quezon. In the central Philippines, it is in effect for the region of Visayas: Northern Samar, northern portion of Eastern Samar (Can-avid, Dolores, Maslog, Oras, Arteche, Jipapad, San Policarpio), and northern portion of Samar.

Tropical Cyclone Wind Signal number 2 is in effect in the northern Philippines for the region of Luzon: Metro Manila, Bulacan, Bataan, Tarlac, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, southern Aurora, Cavite, Batangas, Laguna, Rizal, rest of Quezon including Polillo Islands, Oriental Mindoro, Occidental Mindoro, Marinduque, rest of Camarines Norte, Calamian Islands, southern portion of Zambales, In Visayas the signal covers: the rest of Eastern Samar, rest of Samar, Biliran, Aklan, Capiz, northern portion of Antique, northern portion of Iloilo, northern portion of Negros Occidental, Northern Cebu, and northern portion of Leyte.

Tropical Cyclone Wind Signal number 1 is in effect in the northern Philippines for the region of Luzon: Southern Isabela, Mountain Province, Ifugao, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pangasinan, Quirino, rest of Aurora, and rest of Zambales. In Visayas: Rest of Antique, rest of Iloilo, Guimaras, rest of Negros Occidental, Metro Cebu, rest Leyte, and Southern Leyte. And in the region of Mindanao it is in effect for: Dinagat Islands and Siargao Island

Kammuri is moving in a westerly direction as it approaches the eastern Philippines. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects that the storm will strengthen slightly today, Dec. 2, but will then start to weaken. The typhoon is then expected to turn east-northeast as it passes through the Philippine archipelago, but will then veer southwest, weaken and dissipate.

For updated forecasts from PAGASA, visit: www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph

By William Straka III/ Rob Gutro
University of Wisconsin – Madison-SSEC-CIMSS
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Kammuri – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 28, 2019 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Analyzes a Strengthening Typhoon Kammuri

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite provided forecasters with infrared and nighttime views of Typhoon Kammuri that showed the storm continued to strengthen. Satellite imagery provided a look at the clouds and storms over the storm’s developing eye.

Suomi NPP infrared image of Kammuri
The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’S Suomi NPP provided an infrared image of Kammuri on Nov. 28 at 1:39 p.m. EST (1639 UTC) that shows it is consolidating and strengthening. The circulation center was obscured by the central dense overcast. Credit: NASA/NOAA/UWM-SSEC-CIMSS, William Straka III

Visible, infrared and microwave imagery from NASA satellites help forecasters understand if a storm is organizing or weakening. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’S Suomi NPP provided an infrared and nighttime image of Kammuri on Nov. 28 at 1:39 p.m. EST (1639 UTC) that shows it is consolidating and strengthening. The circulation was obscured by the central dense overcast or CDO. CDO is a large central area of thunderstorms surrounding its circulation center, caused by the formation of its eyewall. It can be round, angular, oval, or irregular in shape.

Suomi NPP found a noticeable increase in the size of the CDO, perhaps an indication of some strengthening of the storm.

William Straka III, a researcher at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Space Science and Engineering Center’s Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies used the satellite data to create imagery. Straka said, “Collocated observations of the location of the CDO and microwave imagery are important to help measure the intensity of a tropical cyclone, by seeing how far the center of circulation is within the storm and the temperature difference in the cloud tops in the CDO. Since microwave imagers can see ‘into the cloud,’ this helps in determining the location of the tropical system.”

Suomi NPP nighttime imagery of Kammuri
The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’S Suomi NPP provided a night-time image of Kammuri on Nov. 28 at 1:39 p.m. EST (1639 UTC). Credit: NASA/NOAA/UWM-SSEC-CIMSS, William Straka III

Straka also noted “However, an important thing to note is that the circulation in one satellite channel is not completely surrounded by the convection.”

 At 7 p.m. CHST, local time, Guam (4 a.m. EST/0900 UTC) on Nov. 29, the National Weather Service in Tiyan, Guam noted that the center of typhoon Kammuri was located near latitude 14.5 degrees north and longitude 137.3 degrees east. That puts the eye of Kammuri about 350 miles north-northwest of Ulithi, 350 miles north of Yap, 395 miles north-northwest of Fais and 505 miles west of Guam.

Kammuri is moving west-northwest at 7 mph. It is expected to make a turn toward the west-southwest with a slight increase in forward speed over the next 24 hours. Maximum sustained winds have increased to 85 mph. Kammuri is forecast to maintain this intensity through Saturday, Nov. 30. Typhoon force winds extend outward from the center up to 35 miles. Tropical storm force winds extend outward from the Center up to 145 miles.

The forecast track for Kammuri takes the storm due west toward the Philippines. The forecast from Joint Typhoon Warning Center has Kammuri intensifying to about 125 knots (144 mph/232 kph) by December 1, 2019, which would be the equivalent to a Category 4 storm in the Atlantic. The storm is expected to make landfall in the central and northern Philippines on Dec. 3.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For updated forecasts. Visit: https://www.weather.gov/gum/Cyclones

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Kammuri – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 27, 2019 – NASA-NOAA Satellite Finds Tropical Storm Kammuri Strengthening

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over Tropical Storm Kammuri in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and found several areas of very strong thunderstorms.

Suomi NPP image of Kammuri
NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over Tropical Storm Kammuri in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and the VIIRS instrument aboard captured this image of the storm on Nov. 27 at 0424 UTC (Nov. 26 at 11:24 p.m. EST). There were several areas (yellow) within where cloud top temperatures were as cold as minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 Celsius), indicating powerful storms. Credit: NASA/NRL

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi NPP provided an infrared image of the storm on Nov. 27 at 0424 UTC (Nov. 26 at 11:24 p.m. EST). Infrared imagery reveals cloud top temperatures, and the higher the cloud top, the colder it is, and the stronger the storm.

The VIIRS instrument found several areas within where cloud top temperatures were as cold as minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 62.2 Celsius), indicating powerful storms. Kammuri continued to strengthen and consolidate. The most powerful thunderstorms were located around the center of circulation and in a fragmented band of thunderstorms north of the center. Storms with cloud tops that cold have been found to generate heavy rainfall.

At 4 a.m. EST (0900 UTC7 p.m. CHST, Guam local time) on Nov. 27,  the National Weather Service in Tiyan, Guam noted the center of Tropical Storm Kammuri was located near latitude 11.7 degrees north and longitude 140.6 degrees east. Kammuri is centered about 130 miles north-northeast of Ulithi, 135 miles north of Fais, 230 miles northeast of Yap and about 310 miles west-southwest of Guam.

Guam, Rota, Tinian, and Saipan are no longer under a Tropical Storm Warning. However, a flash flood watch remains in effect for Guam and the Northern Marianas.

Kammuri is moving west at 16 mph. It is expected to make a turn toward the north-northwest with a decrease in forward speed over the next 24 hours. Maximum sustained winds remain at 65 mph. Tropical storm force winds extend outward from the center up to 240 miles to the northeast and up to 155 miles elsewhere.

Kammuri is forecast to intensify through Thursday possibly becoming a typhoon. It is also forecast to turn north and then head west after two days toward the Philippines.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For updated forecasts, visit:  https://www.weather.gov/gum/

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Kammuri – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 26, 2019 – Satellite Tracking Guam’s Tropical Storm Kammuri

The National Weather Service in Guam has posted warnings as Tropical Storm Kammuri lingers nearby. The NOAA-20 satellite provided forecasters with an image of the storm.

NOAA-20 image of Kammuri
NOAA-20 provided a visible image of Kammuri on Nov. 26 at 0354 UTC (Nov. 25 at 10:54 p.m. EST) that shows it is consolidating and strengthening. The image showed bands of thunderstorms wrapping into its low level center. Credit: NOAA /NRL

Tropical Depression 29W formed on Nov. 25, and when it strengthened into a tropical storm on Nov. 26 it was renamed Kammuri.

Visible imagery from NASA satellites help forecasters understand if a storm is organizing or weakening. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NOAA-20 provided a visible image of Kammuri on Nov. 26 at 0354 UTC (Nov. 25 at 10:54 p.m. EST) that shows it is consolidating and strengthening.  The image showed bands of thunderstorms wrapping into its low level center.

On Nov. 26 (and Nov. 27 local time), a tropical storm warning remains in effect for Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan. Tropical storm conditions, including winds of 39 mph or more, are occurring and will persist through noon (local time on Nov. 27) today.

On Nov. 26 at 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC/1 a.m. CHST on Nov. 27) The National Weather Service in Tiyan, Guam noted that the “center of Tropical Storm Kammuri was located near latitude 11.4 degrees north and longitude 144.4 degrees east. Kammuri is moving west at 24 mph. Kammuri will maintain this motion through tonight [Wed. Nov. 27 local time], then turn toward the northwest on Thursday. Kammuri will decrease in forward speed tonight. Maximum sustained winds have increased to 45 mph. Kammuri is forecast to intensify in the next few days and could become a typhoon on Thursday. Kammuri will be well west of the Marianas.” The storm is at its closest to Guam now.

Kammuri is forecast to move west-northwest, later northwest and strengthen into a typhoon.

NASA launched JPSS-1 in Nov. 2017. JPSS-1 reached polar orbit on Saturday, November 18, and it officially became known as NOAA-20. JPSS-1 joined the NOAA/NASA Suomi NPP satellite in the same polar orbit, and will also provide scientists with observations of atmospheric temperature and moisture, clouds, sea-surface temperature, ocean color, sea ice cover, volcanic ash, and fire detection.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

For updated forecasts. visit: https://www.weather.gov/gum/Cyclones

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Rita – Southern Pacific Ocean

Nov. 26, 2019 – NASA Finds Heavy Rain Potential in Tropical Storm Rita

NASA analyzed the cloud top temperatures in Tropical Storm Rita using infrared light to determine the strength of the storm. Rita has triggered warnings in the island nation of Vanuatu.

AIRS image of Rita
On Nov. 26 at 0224 UTC (Nov. 25 at 9:24 p.m. EST) NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed Tropical Storm Rita’s clouds using the AIRS instrument. AIRS showed the strongest storms southeast of the center where the coldest cloud top temperatures as cold as or colder than 210 Kelvin (purple) minus 81 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 63.1 degrees Celsius) around the center. Credit: NASA JPL/Heidar Thrastarson

One of the ways NASA researches tropical cyclones is using infrared data that provides temperature information. Cloud top temperatures identify where the strongest storms are located. The stronger the storms, the higher they extend into the troposphere, and the colder the cloud top temperatures.

On Nov. 26 at 0224 UTC (Nov. 25 at 9:24 p.m. EST) NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed the storm using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument. The AIRS imagery showed the strongest storms were southeast of the center. In those areas, AIRS found coldest cloud top temperatures as cold as or colder 210 Kelvin minus 81 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 63.1 degrees Celsius). NASA research has shown that cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms that have the capability to create heavy rain.

Animated enhanced infrared satellite imagery shows that convection (rising air that forms the thunderstorms that make up a tropical cyclone) is rapidly decaying. That means that thunderstorms cannot form easily. The bulk of the clouds and showers are being pushed to the southeast of the low-level center of circulation by northwesterly winds.

Tropical cyclones do not always have uniform strength, and some sides have stronger sides than others, so knowing where the strongest sides of the storms are located helps forecasters. NASA then provides data to tropical cyclone meteorologists so they can incorporate it in their forecasts.

At 10 a.m. EST (1500 UTC), the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted that Rita was located near latitude 14.4 degrees south and longitude 169.6 degrees east, about 212 nautical miles north-northeast of Port Vila, Vanuatu. Rita was moving to the south-southwest and had maximum sustained winds of 35 knots (40 mph/65 kph). Rita was moving to the southeast and away from the islands of Vanuatu.

The National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) advises that a Yellow Alert is in effect for people in Penama and Malampa provinces.  Strong to gale force winds may be expected to the east of Penama, Malampa and Shefa Provinces.

On Wednesday, Nov. 27, 2019, the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Port Vila, Vanuatu, said, “Heavy rainfalls are expected over the eastern parts of Penama, Malampa and Shefa province tonight and continuing tomorrow. A Marine strong wind warning for all coastal waters is current. High Seas warning is also current for open waters of Vanuatu close to the system.”

The JTWC expects Rita will dissipate over the next day.

Typhoons and hurricanes are the most powerful weather event on Earth. NASA’s expertise in space and scientific exploration contributes to essential services provided to the American people by other federal agencies, such as hurricane weather forecasting.

The AIRS instrument is one of six instruments flying on board NASA’s Aqua satellite, launched on May 4, 2002.

For updated forecasts from the VMGD website: www.vmgd.gov.vu

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center