Krosa – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 08, 2019 – Typhoon Krosa Follows Leader Supertyphoon Lekima

NOAA-NASA’s Suomi NPP satellite captured this image using NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application on Aug. 08, 2019 and it shows Supertyphoon Lekima heading towards the coast of China as Typhoon Krosa brings up the rear moving slowly towards Japan.

Suomi NPP image of Lekima and Krosa
NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Worldview application provides the capability to interactively browse over 700 global, full-resolution satellite imagery layers and then download the underlying data. Many of the available imagery layers are updated within three hours of observation, essentially showing the entire Earth as it looks “right now.” This NOAA NASA Suomi NPP satellite image was collected on August 08, 2019. Image Courtesy: NASA Worldview, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS).

Typhoon Krosa is currently located 167 nautical miles southwest of Iwo To, Japan.  It is slowly tracking northeastward at one knot over the past six hours making it quasi-stationary as it intensified and maintained its 14 nautical mile eye.

Krosa’s winds are steady at approximately 100 knots (115 mph) which on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale would make this storm just over the Category 3 designation.

Like Lekima, Krosa is able to intensify due to low vertical wind shear and warm sea surface temperatures in the area of 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) both of which are favorable to typhoon development and intensification.

For the time being, Krosa will remain quasi-stationary and continue to intensify for the next 12 hours.  Then the equatorial ridge nearby will steer the storm northeastward. The subtropical ridge will rebuild and steer north-northwestward toward Japan.  Krosa will gradually weaken over the next five days, still maintaining typhoon strength throughout that period.

By Lynn Jenner
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Lekima – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 08, 2019 – Lekima Becomes Supertyphoon, Heading Towards Eastern China

NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this infrared image of Supertyphoon Lekima as it tracked 214 nautical miles southwest of Okinawa, Japan.  Tropical cyclone warning signal #1 is in force for the Luzon provinces of Batanes and Babuyan group of islands.  The storm has tracked north-northwest at 10 knots over the past six hours.

AIRS image of Lekima
NASA’s Aqua satellite was able to capture this infrared image of Supertyphoon Lekima on August 07, 2019 at 1:53pm (0453 UTC) with the AIRS instrument onboard. The dark purple shows the coldest cloud tops within the storm. Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms that have the capability to create heavy rain. Credit: NASA JPL/Heidar Thrastarson

Satellite imagery shows this system continues to rapidly intensify as evidenced by tightly compact central convection which includes an eight nautical mile-sized eye with a tight pinhole in the eye which is an indication of a strong storm.

The supertyphoon is currently producing winds in excess of 130 knots (149 mph).  On the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale that would be a Category 4 hurricane.  With the low vertical wind shear this storm seems well defined and coupled with warm sea surface temperatures of 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) the conditions will most likely allow the storm to continue to intensify.

Supertyphoon Lekima is expected to reach the east coast of China near Taizhou within 48 hours and is expected to sustain the current intensity due to favorable conditions.  Interaction with land, however, will begin to weaken the storm to 60 knots (69 mph) by 72 hours, shortly after it crosses over Shanghai.  At that point the storm will turn north-northwest and rapidly weaken as it continues further inland.

By Lynn Jenner
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Francisco – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 07, 2019 – NASA Catches Transitioning Tropical Storm Francisco near Korean Peninsula

NASA’s Aqua satellite passed over the Sea of Japan and provided forecasters with a visible image of Tropical Storm Francisco as it was transitioning into an extra-tropical cyclone.

Aqua image of Francisco
On Aug. 7, 2019 at 1:00 a.m. EDT (0500 UTC), the MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a visible image of Tropical Storm Francisco in the Sea of Japan, along the Korean Peninsula. Credit: NASA/NRL

Often, a tropical cyclone will transform into an extra-tropical cyclone as it recurves toward the poles (north or south, depending on the hemisphere the storm is located in). An extra-tropical cyclone is a storm system that primarily gets its energy from the horizontal temperature contrasts that exist in the atmosphere. Extra-tropical cyclones (also known as mid-latitude or baroclinic storms) are low pressure systems with associated cold fronts, warm fronts, and occluded fronts.

Tropical cyclones, in contrast, typically have little to no temperature differences across the storm at the surface and their winds are derived from the release of energy due to cloud/rain formation from the warm moist air of the tropics. Structurally, tropical cyclones have their strongest winds near the earth’s surface, while extra-tropical cyclones have their strongest winds near the tropopause – about 8 miles (12 km) up.

On Aug. 7, 2019 at 1:00 a.m. EDT (0500 UTC), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a visible image of Francisco that showed it was still along the coast of the Korean Peninsula. It also appeared elongated from south to north.

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued the final warning on Francisco. Maximum sustained winds dropped to near 35 knots (40 mph/65 kph). It was centered near 39.6 degrees north latitude and 129.3 degrees east longitude. That is 166 nautical miles northeast of Seoul, South Korea. Francisco was moving to the northeast.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that Francisco will traverse the Sea of Japan and move over Hokkaido while weakening.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Lekima – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 07, 2019 – Philippines on Alert with Typhoon Lekima

Lekima is now a typhoon and has triggered warnings in the Philippines. NASA’s Aqua satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and provided a visible image of the storm that shows a clear eye.

Aqua image of Lekima
On Aug. 7, 2019 at 12:55 a.m. EDT (0455 UTC), the MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a visible image of Typhoon Lekima in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Credit: NASA/NRL

On Aug. 7, the Philippines’ PAGASA service issued Tropical cyclone warning signal #1 for the Luzon provinces of Batanes and Babuyan group of islands.

On Aug. 7, 2019 at 12:55 a.m. EDT (0455 UTC), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a visible image of Lekima that revealed a clear eye surrounded by a tight, circular band of powerful thunderstorms. Lekima also has a large band of thunderstorms that are feeding into the center from the south and east.

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), Typhoon Lekima had maximum sustained winds near 85 knots (98 MPH/157 KPH). It was centered near 20.9 degrees north latitude and 127.7 degrees east longitude. That is 421 nautical miles south of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa island, Japan. Lekima was moving to the northwest and generating 25-foot high waves.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Lekima to continue moving northwest and strengthen to 125 knots (144 mph/232 kph), making it a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. Lekima is expected to pass just north of northern Taiwan around August 9 and make landfall near Shanghai around August 12.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Krosa – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 07, 2019 – Tropical Storm Krosa Gets a Comma Shape

Tropical Storm Krosa continued on its journey northward in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean when NOAA’s NOAA-20 polar orbiting satellite passed overhead and captured a visible image of the strengthening storm in a classic tropical cyclone shape.

NOAA-20 image of Krosa
NOAA’s NOAA-20 polar orbiting satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Krosa on Aug. 7, 2019.
Credit: NASA/NRL/NOAA

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NOAA-20 provided a visible image of the storm. There’s also a VIIRS instrument aboard the NASA-NOAA Suomi NPP satellite that preceded NOAA-20.

The VIIRS image revealed Krosa had developed the signature “comma shape” of a strengthening storm. A large wide band of thunderstorms were feeding into the low-level center from the south and east of the center.

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) on Aug. 7, Tropical Storm Krosa’s maximum sustained winds were near 60 knots (69 mph/111 kph) and strengthening. It was centered near 21.2 degrees north latitude and 141.3 degrees east longitude. That is about 31 nautical miles south of Iwo To island, Japan. Krosa was moving to the north-northwest.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center said that Krosa will move northwest, and then later turn north while becoming a typhoon.

By Rob Gutro 
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Francisco – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 06, 2019 – NASA Finds Tropical Storm Francisco in the Korea Strait

NASA’s Aqua satellite passed over the Korea Strait and found the center of Tropical Storm Francisco in the middle of it. The AIRS instrument aboard took the temperature of its cloud tops to estimate storm strength and found strong storms over two countries.

AIRS image of Francisco
On Aug. 6, at 1217 a.m. EDT (0417 UTC). the AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed cloud top temperatures of Tropical Storm Francisco in infrared light. AIRS found coldest cloud top temperatures (purple) of strongest thunderstorms were as cold as or colder than minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53 degrees Celsius). Credit: NASA JPL/Heidar Thrastarson

The Korea Strait is a located between South Korea and Japan. It connects the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan in the northwest Pacific Ocean.

NASA’s Aqua satellite passed over Francisco on Aug. 6, at 1217 a.m. EDT (0417 UTC). The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite analyzed Francisco in infrared light and found cloud top temperatures of strongest thunderstorms as cold as or colder than minus 63 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 53 degrees Celsius) were wrapping around the low-level center from west to north to east. Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms that have the capability to create heavy rain. Those strong storms were affecting southern South Korea and southern Japan. The southern side of the storm appeared to have few storms.

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Francisco was located near latitude 36.2 degrees north and 129.4 degrees east longitude. Francisco’s center is about 33 nautical miles north-northeast of Busan, South Korea. It was moving to the northwest and had maximum sustained winds near 45 knots (52 mph/83 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center forecasts that Francisco will move north then turn northeast and curve east through the Sea of Japan and cross Hokkiado, the northernmost islands of Japan on Aug. 8.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Krosa – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 06, 2019 – NASA Finds Heavy Rain in New Tropical Storm Krosa

Tropical Storm Krosa had recently developed into a tropical storm when the GPM satellite passed overhead and found heavy rainfall. Fortunately, the storm was over open waters.

GPM image of Krosa
The GPM core satellite passed over Tropical Storm Krosa at 10:21 a.m. EDT (1421 UTC) on August 6, 2019. GPM found the heaviest rainfall (pink) was east of the center of circulation falling at a rate of 50 mm (about 2 inches) per hour. Credit: NASA/JAXA/NRL

Krosa formed on August 5 as the eleventh tropical depression of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean typhoon season. On August 6 by 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) it had become a tropical storm and was re-named Krosa.

The Global Precipitation Measurement mission or GPM core satellite passed over Tropical Storm Krosa at 10:21 a.m. EDT (1421 UTC) on August 6, 2019.  GPM found the heaviest rainfall was east of the center of circulation falling at a rate of 50 mm (about 2 inches) per hour, over open ocean GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA.

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) Tropical storm Krosa was located near19.0 degrees north latitude and 142.3 east longitude, about 352 miles south of Iwo To Island, Japan. Krosa was moving to the northwest and had maximum sustained winds near 40 knots (46 mph/74 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that Krosa will move northwest, then later north and strengthen to a typhoon with maximum sustained winds near 75 knots (86 mph/139 kph).

Krosa is expected to pass very near the island of Iwo To on August 9 and move north.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Lekima – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 06, 2019 – NASA Satellite Finds Strong Storms Circling Lekima’s Center

NASA’s Aqua satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and captured a visible image of strengthening Tropical Storm Lekima.

Aqua image of Lekima
On Aug. 6, 2019, the MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a visible image of Tropical Storm Lekima in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Credit: NASA/NRL

On Aug. 6, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite provided a visible image of Lekima that showed a ring of strong thunderstorms around its center of circulation.

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), the center of Lekima was located near latitude 19.1 degrees north and longitude 129.0 degrees east. Lekima was about 449 nautical miles south of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. Lekima was moving to the north-northwest and had maximum sustained winds near 50 knots (57 mph/92 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Lekima to move northwest and strengthen into a typhoon. After 3 days, it will pass over Taiwan and turn northeast just off the east coast of China, where it is expected to dissipate.

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Flossie – Central Pacific Ocean

Aug. 06, 2019 – NASA Sees Flossie Now a Remnant Low Pressure Area

 Former Hurricane Flossie was nothing more than a remnant low pressure area early on Tuesday, August 6. Infrared imagery from NASA’s Aqua satellite found just a few scattered areas of cold clouds in thunderstorms in the remnants northeast of the Hawaiian Islands.

Aqua image of Flossie
On August 6 at 4:40 a.m. EDT (0840 UTC), the MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite showed strongest thunderstorms in the remnants of Flossie were fragmented northeast of the Hawaiian Islands. There cloud top temperatures were as cold as minus 50 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 45.5 Celsius). Credit: NASA/NRL

NASA’s Aqua satellite uses infrared light to analyze the strength of storms by providing temperature information about the system’s clouds. The strongest thunderstorms that reach high into the atmosphere have the coldest cloud top temperatures.

On August 6 at 4:40 a.m. EDT (0840 UTC), the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite gathered infrared data on Flossie.

MODIS found just a few scattered areas of cold clouds in thunderstorms in the remnants, northeast of the Hawaiian Islands. Those thunderstorms had cloud top temperatures as cold as minus 50 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 45.5 Celsius).

The NHC issued the final advisory on Flossie at 11 p.m. EDT on Aug. 5 (0300 UTC on Aug. 6).  At that time, center of Post-Tropical Cyclone Flossie was located near latitude 20.8 degrees North and longitude 154.6 degrees West. That’s about 85 miles (135 km) north-northeast of Hilo, Hawaii. The post-tropical cyclone is moving toward the west-northwest near 12 mph (19 kph). A gradual turn toward the north-northwest is expected until dissipation on Wednesday.

Maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 kph) with higher gusts.

Flossie is expected to gradually degenerate over the next day or so and dissipate by Wednesday.

For updated forecasts, visit: https://www.nhc.noaa.gov

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center

Francisco – Northwestern Pacific Ocean

Aug. 05, 2019 – NASA Catches Tropical Storm Francisco’s Approach to Landfall in Southern Japan

Infrared imagery from NASA’s Aqua satellite shows that Tropical Storm Francisco had powerful thunderstorms with heavy rain capabilities around the center of circulation as it moves toward landfall in southern Japan.

Terra image of Francisco
On Aug. 5 at 9 a.m. EDT (1300 UTC) the MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite showed strongest storms (red) in Tropical Storm Francisco circled the center. There, cloud top temperatures were as cold as minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 56.6 Celsius). Credit: NASA/NRL

On Aug. 5, 2019, the Japan Meteorological Agency has issued warnings for the Amami, Kyushu and Shikoku. Advisories are in effect for Chugoku, Kinki Ogasawara, Okinawa and Tokai.

NASA’s Aqua satellite used infrared light to analyze the strength of storms in Tropical Storm Francisco and found strongest storms circling the center. Infrared data provides temperature information, and the strongest thunderstorms that reach high into the atmosphere have the coldest cloud top temperatures.

On Aug. 5 at 9 a.m. EDT (1300 UTC), the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite  found strongest thunderstorms had cloud top temperatures as cold as minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 56.6 Celsius). Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate strong storms with the potential to generate heavy rainfall.

Microwave satellite imagery revealed an eye had formed in the center of those powerful thunderstorms.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center or JTWC noted at 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) that Francisco had maximum sustained winds near 60 knots (60 mph/111kph). Francisco was centered near 31.6 degrees north latitude and 132.4 degrees east longitude. Tropical storm Francisco was located approximately 203 nautical miles east-southeast of Sasebo, Japan. Francisco has tracked westward.

After the storm makes landfall in Kyushu, Japan, it is forecast to pass into the south of the Korean peninsula, and turn to the northeast as it becomes extra-tropical over the Sea of Japan.

For updated warnings from the Japan Meteorological Agency, visit: https://www.jma.go.jp/en/warn/

By Rob Gutro
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center